2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich became famous first of all as the Russian founder of pedagogy, and then as a writer. However, the life of this talented person was not long, the disease took all his strength from him, he was in a hurry to work and do as much as possible for others. In 1867, he returned to his homeland from Europe and a few years later, in 1871 (according to the new style), he died, he was only 47 years old.
Konstantin Ushinsky really did a lot for Russia. His passionate dream, recorded in his personal diary from his youth, was to become useful to his Fatherland. This man devoted his life to the correct upbringing and enlightenment of the younger generation.
Konstantin Ushinsky: short biography
Kostya was born in Tula on February 19, 1823 in the family of a petty nobleman - a retired officer, a veteran of the war of 1812. The biography of Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich indicates that he spent his childhood in the town of Novgorod-Seversky, located in the Chernigov province, in a small parental estate, where his father wassent to work as a judge. His mother died very early, when he was 12 years old.
After graduating from the local gymnasium, Konstantin became a law student at Moscow University. He graduated with honors. Two years later, he became acting professor of cameral sciences at the Law Lyceum of Yaroslavl.
However, his brilliant career was interrupted very quickly - in 1849. Ushinsky was fired for "riots" among students, this was facilitated by his progressive views.
Beginning of pedagogical activity
Konstantin Ushinsky was forced to work in a minor official position in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Such activities did not satisfy him and even disgusted him (he himself wrote about this in his diaries).
The writer got the greatest pleasure from literary work in the journals "Library for Reading" and "Contemporary", where he placed his articles, translations from English and reviews of materials published in foreign print media.
In 1854, Konstantin Ushinsky began working as a teacher, then as an inspector at the Gatchina Orphan Institute, where he showed himself to be an excellent teacher, an expert in the basics of upbringing and education.
Influenced by the development of the social and pedagogical movement in 1857-1858. Ushinsky writes several of his articles in the Journal for Education, which became a turning point in his life, authority and fame immediately came to him.
In 1859 he receivesposition of inspector of the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens. In this well-known institution, closely associated with the royal family, an atmosphere of ingratiation and servility flourished at that time. All training was carried out in the spirit of Christian morality, which ultimately boiled down to instilling secular manners, admiration for tsarism and a minimum of real knowledge.
Ushinsky immediately reformed the institute: despite the resistance of reactionary teachers, he introduced a new curriculum. Now the main subject was the Russian language and literature, as well as the natural sciences. In the lessons of physics and chemistry, he introduced experiments, as these visual principles of teaching contributed to a better assimilation and understanding of topics. At that time, the best teachers were invited - methodologists in literature, geography, history, etc., and these are V. I. Vodovozov, D. D. Semenov, M. I. Semevsky
An interesting decision was the introduction of a two-year teaching class in addition to the seven general education classes, so that the pupils would be better prepared for useful work. It also introduces conferences and meetings for teachers into the practice of pedagogical work. Pupils also receive the right to relax on vacation and on holidays with their parents.
Konstantin Ushinsky was very happy about all these events. A biography for children will also be interesting because it was for them that he wrote a lot of amazing fairy tales and stories.
At the same time, in 1861, Ushinsky created an anthology "Children's World" in Russian forelementary grades in two parts, which included science material.
In 1860-1861 he edits the "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", completely changes the uninteresting and dry program there and turns it into a scientific and pedagogical journal.
Mr. Konstantin Dmitrievich Ushinsky devotes all his time to this matter. A brief biography indicates that his works have brought many benefits to society. He writes and publishes rather reactionary articles in journals. The author could not but pay for such self-will. He was harassed, colleagues accused him of political unreliability and freethinking.
Experience in Europe
In 1862 he was fired from the Smolny Institute. And then the Tsarist government sends him abroad on a long business trip to study European women's education. Ushinsky perceives this trip as a link.
However, he gets down to business, studies everything with great interest and visits a number of European countries. In Switzerland, he is especially scrupulous in studying the organization of primary education. Konstantin Ushinsky presents his conclusions and generalizations in the textbook for class reading "Native Word" and the training manual for it. Then he prepares two volumes of "Man as an Object of Education" and collects all the materials for the third.
Sickness and misfortune
In his last years, he acted as a public figure. He has published many articles about Sundayschools and schools for the children of artisans, he was also a member of the Pedagogical Congress in the Crimea. In 1870, in Simferopol, he visited several educational institutions and eagerly met with teachers and their students.
One of the teachers I. P. Derkachev recalled that in the summer of 1870, Ushinsky, upon returning home from the Crimea to the farm of Bogdanka, Glukhovsky district (Chernihiv region), wanted to visit his friend N. A. Corfu in the Yekaterinoslav region, but did not was able to do this. One of the reasons was his cold, and then the tragic death of his eldest son Paul. After that, Ushinsky and his family moved to live in Kyiv and bought a house on Tarasovskaya. And immediately with his sons, he goes to be treated in the Crimea. On the way, Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich catches a bad cold and stops in Odessa for treatment, but soon dies, this was in January 1871 (according to the new style). He was buried in Kyiv in the Vydubitsky monastery.
Ushinsky's favorite women
K. D. Ushinsky's wife was Nadezhda Semyonovna Doroshenko. He met her back in Novgorod-Seversky. She was from an ancient Cossack family. Ushinsky married her in the summer of 1851 during a business trip in this city. They had five children.
Daughter Vera (after her husband Poto) opened a men's City School in Kyiv at her own expense, named after her father. The second daughter Nadezhda, using the proceeds from her father's labors, created an elementary school in the village of Bogdanka, where Ushinsky once lived.
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