2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
There are not so many ways to spend your free time that have survived from antiquity to the present day. Just as the ancient Romans went to their baths not only for cleanliness, but also for communication, so the modern inhabitants of cities and villages go there not only for a good steam, but also for a good conversation. The bath, one might say, is not so much an aristocratic as a democratic pastime. That is why all the traditions have been preserved in oral folk art - in sayings and proverbs about the bath. Accurate and well-aimed observations related to the bathhouse have been passed down through folklore through the ages.
A bit of history
If now the banya is in most cases perceived as a kind of "leisure center", where you can spend a free evening with friends, talk "for life", drink a beer, then it's not at allFor a long time, going to the bathhouse was not so much a festive event as an everyday one. When the inhabitants of megacities were not yet spoiled by the housing problem and had one bath for several families in communal apartments, going to the city bath was of a forced nature. In any weather, with children and with brooms, Leningraders and Muscovites went from their densely populated apartments to baths: this was already becoming a kind of ritual, which many have preserved, having moved to separate apartments with all amenities. Residents of communal apartments that still exist in Moscow and St. Petersburg continue to go to baths.
There are quite a lot of fantastic ideas among contemporaries about the baths in the villages, in which Russian men soared before the revolution. In fact, only we althy peasants had their own bathhouses; for many, the bathhouse was only a "transit point" that was used twice in their lives - to enter this world and leave it. According to popular beliefs, the bathhouse was an unclean place, a woman was considered the same while expecting a child, therefore, having removed the cross from the woman in labor, she was sent to give birth in the bathhouse. The funeral ritual was also carried out in the bathhouse: the deceased was taken there to prepare for a journey to another world. In order to simply wash, the room was regularly used by units. Most of the peasants bathed in their spacious stoves in the house where they lived.
The Varangians, who brought the tradition of washing in baths to Russia, did not see the desire of the locals to continue it. Later baths invillages have become a sign of the we alth of the family, it has even become prestigious to have one. Before the revolution, workers in the cities bathed in industrial baths, all the rest - in public baths, which for the most part did not have a very good reputation.
Why baths are needed: proverbs answer
Sayings about the bath convey all its possibilities: from the club of interests to the accomplishment of mystical fortune-telling, from the sanatorium where they go for he alth, to the place of romantic meetings. These sayings can be divided into two groups - serious and funny. In the first place, the people consolidated those ideas about the bath, which are associated with sacred moments in a person's life - with his birth, wedding and death.
In serious sayings about the bath, there was even a tendency to perceive the place where the ritual takes place as a living and very close being that takes care of a person, heals his body and soul.
Bath is the second mother: it will steam the bones, it will fix the whole thing!
Of course, no one associated the bath with the church, but the salvation of the soul, deliverance from sins, judging by the sayings that have come down to us about the bath, is an important consequence of visiting it.
Sayings and proverbs about the bath, which makes a person not only cleaner, but also better, have also come down to our time in large numbers.
The steam room spirit is the holy spirit.
Bath will wash away all sins.
Fragrant steam heals not only the body, but also the soul.
Subordination, which has always existed in society, has traditionally been rejected in the bathhouse in favor of universal equality.
There are no generals in the bathhouse.
The only power that was recognized in the bathhouse was that of a broom.
Broom in the bath around the head.
Sayings about the bath, dedicated to the attributes of the bath pastime, occupy an important part of the folklore heritage. They meet both a gang and a tub, but the broom still occupies the first place in terms of the number of mentions.
Broom in the bath master.
The broom in the bath is the boss for everyone.
A bathhouse without a broom is like a flower bed without flowers.
Without a broom, the bath does not soar, and the steam does not fry.
In the bath, a broom is more expensive than money.
A bathhouse without a broom is like a samovar without a pipe.
A bath broom and the king is older, since the king is steaming.
The owner has a broom in the bath, and a poker in the oven.
A small percentage of all are sayings about the bath, which talk about the negative consequences of bath procedures, as well as the uselessness of using the bath to solve problems that need to be solved in another way.
Wash, even if you wipe off your skin, you won't be whiter than water.
And the sore sits down in the bath.
From the bath, bring a scratch.
You can't crack from dirt, you can't rise from purity.
Take it out of the bath (about a disease of unknown origin).
Went to the bath on my feet, and from the bath on wood.
You won't be full on the ferry.
You often take a steam bath in the bath - you will soon grow old.
From every illness
Many proverbs are connected with the topic of he alth, which miraculously appears even in the frail and infirm in the bath. If you need to overcome a cold or just cheer up, they also takebroom hands. In order to achieve a therapeutic effect, it is necessary to observe a number of taboos in the bath: do not speak loudly, do not swear, so as not to anger the bannik. You need to bathe only with your broom, so as not to take on someone else's illness. And to get rid of your own, pronounce the right words, for example:
Water is water, you are my queen!
I praise you, water, and my he alth!
Unlike proverbs, which are whole complete statements with a certain moral that going to the bath is good and he althy, sayings are separate stable phrases that make sense only in the bath context. Cool sayings about the bath were originally part of the rituals, but now they are used as a tribute to tradition, as a kind of game element of the bath show. “Like water off a goose, so thinness is from you,” they say when they douse water from a tub in a bathhouse. Originally it was a medicine man's spell, but now it's a proverb.
Bath attributes in Russian phraseological units
At the basis of many stable phrases there are bath attributes. Despite the fact that these phraseological units are used to comment on other situations that are not related to the bath, initially their components were used in the direct meaning in the bath discourse. For example, they are not going to soar with a broom when they threaten to “set a bath” - this well-known expression has the meaning of giving someone a serious dressing. Even in the well-known gloomy saying “Lucky like a drowned man”, there was initially a bath element: “Lucky like a Saturday drowned man - you don’t need to heat the bathhouse.” Saturday - was traditionalbath day: only death could relieve the duties of a stoker - this was the original cultural meaning of the saying.
The absurd situation on the topic of visiting the bath formed the basis of another phraseological unit: “After the bath, wash your knees again.” Of course, it is not about a clean person: this is what they say about someone who, out of habit, does something that is devoid of any meaning. Another proverb used to be associated with a bathhouse, but then it acquired a universal meaning for all situations in which witnesses of the same event tell about it in different ways: “From one bathhouse, but not one news.”
In the works of Russian classics, there are also situations in which characters use sayings about a bath. So, in the story of N. Uspensky "In his own business" by Prokhor Ilyich, who is returning from the bath, the merchants at each shop congratulate him on a light steam. Of the bath phraseological units, this one is the most famous today, thanks to the cult Soviet film by E. Ryazanov.
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