2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Slavic folk culture is closely connected with Russia, Ukraine and, of course, Belarus. The musical ensembles of each of the states sometimes used very similar, and even the same mechanisms.
In this article you will learn the names of Belarusian folk instruments. Unfortunately, in our time, most of them do not have such relevance. However, representatives of folklore honor and preserve the ancient musical culture.
Duda is one of the more popular types of bagpipes. It is also a Belarusian folk instrument.
The zone from which its distribution began originates from the former territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In ancient Belarus (15-16 centuries) the use of the duda was of a ritual nature.
The tool consists of a pouch, a sapele - an inflatable pipe, a sap - a playing pipe, one gook - a bourdon. At the very ends of the zhaleyka and the gook there are horns that serve as bells - expanding edge parts.
This Belarusian folk instrument is characterized by a closed fingering, due to which a specific mannersound. Thanks to the bourdon, the effect of polyphony arises - the melody is supported by one or more basses at the same time.
Dulcimer is a stringed and at the same time percussion musical instrument, which is a trapezoidal deck with stretched strings. The sound from this mechanism is extracted thanks to wooden sticks or beaters with expanding blades at the ends, with which the performer strikes the strings.
There are two types of Belarusian musical instrument: folk and concert. The second one has larger parameters.
The sound of cymbals is similar to the fusion of a piano with bells. The analogue in Russian culture is the gusli, but the main difference between these two mechanisms is the way the music is extracted. The Russian instrument is played with the help of fingertips or a plectrum.
Zhaleyka - wind reed musical instrument. Widespread in the country of Belarus. Zhaleika is considered one of the progenitors of the clarinet.
Initially, the instrument was used by shepherds to call animals. Widespread in Slavic countries, but now it is used only in the activities of folk ensembles.
The first mention of this instrument is in Tuchkov's notes dated to the 18th century, despite the fact that the author calls it not a pity, but a flute.
The instrument consists of a wooden tube with a bell made of either cow horn or birch bark.
There are two types of zhaleyki: single and double-barreled. The instrument makes a loud, piercing, assertive and slightly noisy sound. Timbre - nasal and compassionate. Virtually no overtones and dynamic shades.
Ratchet - both Russian and Belarusian folk instrument. During archaeological excavations in Veliky Novgorod, two tablets were discovered that could be included in the set of an ancient instrument of the 12th century (according to musicologist Povetkin).
It was used at wedding ceremonies during the performance of praise songs, and also as an alarm, for example, by guards during rounds.
The ratchet consists of a group of 18-20 thin boards, most often made of oak, 16-18 centimeters long. Between themselves, they are connected with a dense rope, which is threaded through the holes cut out at the top of the planks. In order for the boards to be separated, small wooden plates about 2 centimeters wide are inserted between them.
The hurdy gurdy is a stringed musical instrument. Its oldest images date back to the 12th century.
On the Slavic land, the lira appeared in the 17th century. It was used by itinerant musicians, wanderers and the blind, who performed ballads, historical songs and spiritual verses to the sound of the lyre. The musician held it on his knees and turned the wheel with his right hand, as a result of which vibration was formed, and most of the strings (from three to eleven) soundedat the same time.
Lyra has a powerful, monotonous, sad and slightly nasal sound.
Domra is a Slavic string-plucked musical instrument. It was most widely used in the 16-17 centuries among buffoons.
The instrument consists of two main parts: body and neck.
Domra is distinguished by the number of strings: it can consist of three or four.
Domra is a popular folk instrument both in the Belarusian orchestra and in folklore ensembles of other countries.
It has a bright velvety and light timbre. Due to the strong tension of the strings, the sound of the domra is very sonorous, but quickly fading away. A mediator is used for the game.
Because the instrument has great technical potential, it can perform many songs. This is one of the reasons why almost no folk ensemble can do without domra. There are many compositions where the solo part is given to this instrument.
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