2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
First impression. No one will deny the significance of this postulate. Then you can correct, correct, change the final opinion, but first impressions remain with us forever. The Jordanian staircase, or, as it was originally called, the Ambassadorial, was designed to create an opinion about the Great Russian state. Powerful, rich, large-scale.
Creating a masterpiece
Elizabeth, as the true daughter of Peter, understood the importance of the external attributes of the empire, emphasizing its power and status. Therefore, she ordered to demolish the previous residence of the Russian sovereigns, which, after numerous restructurings, had a slightly solemn, not formal appearance. Rastrelli (Bartolomeo Francesco) was commissioned in 1752 to build a palace that would meet the requirements of the Great Autocrat. Inspired by the task, the legendary builder of St. Petersburg created a creation, each room and element of which is a separate masterpiece of architecture and interior design. The Jordan Staircase is no exception. Keeping in mind the special functionsShe was assigned the role of making the right first impression. The result is truly grandiose.
definitely unique in Europe in terms of beauty and vastness
- this is how A. P. described the main staircase of the winter residence. Bashutsky.
By the end of the 18th century, the baroque wave, covering continental Europe from Italy to Germany and Poland, reached Russia. The main components of the style - pomposity and solemnity - are created due to the special splendor of the decor, the play of light and shadow, theatrical techniques, bizarre proportions and curved dynamics of lines. This makes the style recognizable from the first moments. The pretentiousness of the Baroque was to the taste of the inhabitants of the Northern capital. The Byzantine past made its additions to the European vision, which was called "Russian Baroque". The Jordanian staircase in the Winter Palace is a striking example of this style. The interior of the main staircase was designed and fully implemented by B. F. Rastrelli. Montferan, Kvarnegi, Rossi were involved in the work on the design of other premises.
Gorgeous and unique
The great Italian with a southern temperament embodied the baroque in the final image of the Jordan Stairs, using all the possibilities of style. The central element that harmoniously connects all the variety of decoration - the staircase is divided into two flights, the curved geometry of which, like flowing streams of water, determines the dynamics of the rest of the space. The lower of the two tiers of the stairs, as a base, holds the entire composition. The upper tier, due to the abundance of real and false mirrored windows, "opens" the perspective, visually expanding the space. All this is crowned with an elegant colonnade and ceiling, a picturesque continuation of the sky. The fascination with antique statues, characteristic of the Baroque, found its confirmation here as well. At the entrance to the Neva Enfilade, like faithful guards, the figures of Mars and Apollo froze. In the central niche of the lower tier is located "Power", often called the "Mistress". On the north wall - "Justice" and "Mercury". On the east - "Greatness" (Athena), "Wisdom" and "Loy alty". On the south wall - "Justice" and "Erato's Muse". The splendor of interiors is impossible without appropriate materials. Gilded stucco, marble and granite emphasize the state status of the Jordan Stairs.
The human factor, an open air vent, almost destroyed the creation of brilliant masters. The smell of smoke was noticed in the morning of that ill-fated December day in 1837, but until the evening they could not determine the source of the fire. Dried out for almost a century, the wooden structures of the Palace burned for more than 2 days. The Jordanian staircase in the Hermitage, like other interiors, was destroyed.
Restoration was entrusted to V. P. Stasov. Approaching his work reverently and responsibly, he restored the Embassy Stairs.
And again writes A. P. Bashutsky, a witness to Rastrelli's original version, noting that the decoration:
not deviating in their forms fromstyle, superbly ennobled by the new concept of art regarding the purity of the relief and the correctness of the drawing
Changing times demanded a modern look at history. The main color of the original interior - pink - was changed to strict gray and classic white. The golden forged lattice was replaced by a carved airy marble balustrade, a military weapons theme was added. Classicism confidently pressed the baroque.
Jordanian or Embassy?
How to find the Jordan stairs in the Hermitage? You need to remember the history of the name. It was built as the main one, for a long time it served as the Embassy. It became Jordanian only once a year, when the imperial family descended along it to the Jordan - an ice-hole cut in the Neva. The last name was fixed, oddly enough, in Soviet times. You can get to it by passing through the Jordanian (Ambassadorial) entrance of the Winter Palace, which is the closest to the Neva. Sometimes this entrance is called Excursion. Most of the guests of the Hermitage enter the Winter Palace through it. Its main task - to make a first impression - the main staircase of the museum performs regularly to this day, attracting tourists.
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