2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
A poster is usually called a large-format wall sheet of a propaganda, advertising or training plan with a picture or photograph, as well as explanatory text.
The poster is quite an ancient phenomenon. Its types include rock paintings, prints of the Middle Ages, shop signs, theater and film posters, propaganda and social prints, posters for birthdays, children's, weddings.
At the end of the 18th century, the German I. A. Zenerfelder invented the so-called flat printing - lithography, thereby becoming the founder of a multicolor printed poster. And in 1869, the French graphic artist and artist J. Cheret released the first color theater poster "Valentine's Ball", in which he combined lithography and embossed printing.
As we know the poster today, it appeared in the 19th century. Poster art began to spread along with the revival of theaters, art galleries, with the development of an active political life and holding rallies. At that time, posters were still mostly made by hand. Great contribution to poster artcontributed by such artists as A. Toulouse-Lautrec, J. Cheret, E. Grasse, A-M. Mucha, P. Bonnard, E. Degas, C. Manet, A. Matisse, P. Picasso.
Types of posters
Posters can be classified according to different criteria. For example, depending on the application technique, they are divided into offset or digital posters. They also vary in size. The minimum format is usually A2.
Depending on the media chosen to convey information, posters may contain only an image, only text, or text and an image together.
If the poster contains only an image, then it must be very high resolution. It is essential that the picture or photograph on the poster is well recognizable so that the viewer can quickly understand what is shown.
The requirements for text are the same as for picture posters - what is written should be understandable. Often such posters are used accompanied by graphics. Science-themed posters are an example of this type of poster.
And finally, the most popular and widely used type of posters is “picture + text”. They are the most efficient and easier to interpret. The image captures viewers' interest and the text provides them with additional information.
Depending on the subject and function, they can be classified as advertising, election, campaign, theater and film, social, children's posters, birthday, educational and informational posters and so on.
Theatrical and film posters
Theatrical poster as a kindreceived recognition in 1897 after an exhibition in St. Petersburg. It was attended by many famous artists of the time, who brought their best works.
The main purpose of a theatrical poster or poster is to announce new performances, convey to the viewer information about the place, time, date of the cost of attending the event.
With the development of cinema, posters began to be used to advertise films. Initially, movie posters depicted various episodes of the film. Later, in order to attract the viewer, the creators began to illustrate the main characters, and even tried to convey the genre and mood of the film.
Theatrical and movie posters in most cases depict the main actors, illustrations or frames that anticipate the action of the play or film. In addition to artists, the names of authors, directors, producers, producers may be mentioned.
Because such a poster must hang for a sufficient amount of time (at least one season), it must be printed on very good paper, and also have an ideal color quality.
During the First and Second World Wars, the poster received a new role - it became a tool of political propaganda. Posters were often used to convey a sense of patriotism to ordinary citizens. All the warring parties massively used posters that helped recruit soldiers into the army and raise money for the production of weapons for the front. On the posters, the enemy has always been shown from the worst side. military posterstime served as a powerful weapon of motivation and agitation affecting the population.
After the war, the campaign poster began to be used as a campaign tool to promote the goals of various parties and candidates. On such posters, individual politicians are usually shown close-up or within an important target group, for example, in the circle of children. By means of posters of this kind, parties or politicians want to convince voters that they have the right answer to social questions and tell them what benefits can be expected by choosing the appropriate party. Campaign posters are posted immediately prior to the event for the general public.
Creating the image of an enemy of the motherland has become a kind of hallmark of Soviet communist propaganda. Almost anyone could be an enemy. For example, one of the favorite characters of that time was a speculator. He usually wore a long coat and an American hat. Alcohol was also portrayed as a dangerous enemy. Drunkenness, which was widespread, was generally treated as the most serious crime.
Soviet fine art not only denounced the enemies of the authorities and truants. Posters motivating people to work hard were popular.
Current foreign policy was also a common theme for Soviet posters. The image of the enemy from the outside was created. The favorite in Soviet propaganda was NATO. It was presented on posters as a puppet of the United States.
Starting in the 1920s and 1930s, posters were circulated with safety regulations in industry, construction and on the roads.
In the modern world, posters have lost their propaganda function a little. Today, posters are mass-produced. And anyone can order a poster for a specific holiday and event, such as a birthday or a wedding.
This is a very popular way of artistic interior decoration. Posters decorate children's rooms, living rooms, offices and other premises.
Promotional posters are one of the most popular forms of visual advertising. It's a fast, efficient and cheap way to generate leads. Posters are placed at points of sale to inform potential buyers about new products and product benefits.
The design of advertising posters must be carefully thought out. The essence of an advertising poster is to convey its message to people, often in a hurry passing by. Color matters a lot. Ads that use a contrasting palette are clearly visible and stand out. Fonts play an important role. Avoid too small and thin letters, minimize the use of capital letters. Words must be separated by visible spaces.
The service life of advertising posters can be quite long. Therefore, very high quality materials and paints are used in the manufacture, it is usedlamination.
Nowadays, a promotional poster is no longer just an informational message on paper. Thanks to technology, the poster has unlimited possibilities. For example, it can be three-dimensional or glow at night.
Creating and printing posters
Creating posters is very different now than it was a hundred years ago. The ways of printing and the methods of submitting a message have also changed. Before being released to the public, the poster goes through several stages.
- Developing a strategy. This is a particularly important stage for advertising posters. That is, the idea itself, the zest, how to make the poster attractive, but at the same time understandable to the target audience, is thought up.
- Poster design - development of the visual part. At this stage, the color scheme is determined, fonts are selected, the size of the poster.
- Printing a poster. It is carried out in various ways - it can be offset or digital. Also, the finished poster can be laminated, varnished. The final look of the product depends on the purpose and purpose of the poster.
In today's world with the advent of new media such as television and the Internet, the poster is losing its original significance. It has ceased to be an art form or a means of agitation. Despite this, the poster is still in demand as an outdoor advertisement.
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