2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Television is the most important media for Russia. Residents of the country are accustomed to the fact that the broadcasting of television programs is free, and with the advent of pay channels, they began to worry if they would lose their usual content. The government protects the rights of the population and creates a list of federal channels, which in any case must be shown free of charge.
Television in Russia
Regular television broadcasting in the USSR began in 1939. At first, it covered only the metropolitan region, but in 1951 the Central Television Studio was created, which provided the first program with a television product. After 5 years, a second channel appears, and since 1965, a studio for creating training programs begins to work. Gradually, the number of editions is growing, new formats are appearing, and not only of an informational nature, but also of an entertaining nature, for example, KVN, “Song of the Year”. Initially, television was publicly available to all owners of television sets. Therefore, the idea of paid channels did not even arise amongresidents of the Soviet Union. Free federal TV channels were distributed to all corners of the vast country, and only with the transition to a market economy did the situation begin to change. In 1988, the first commercial television company in Nizhny Novgorod goes on the air. Gradually, this process covered the whole country.
Social TV features
Television is the most massive means of transmitting information, it is publicly available, has a high ability to influence the viewer. This leads to the fact that a large social burden is placed on TV. The main function of television is informational. The first federal channel has the largest coverage of the population in the country, therefore it has the ability to quickly convey information to almost every resident. Television has long been the most important source of information for people. Today, this championship is contested by the Internet, but so far its penetration and coverage have not reached 100%, so TV remains in the lead. Television broadcasting also performs such functions as cultural, educational, entertaining, ideological, integrative and educational. Such multifunctionality makes television highly demanded and necessary for the state and society. Therefore, it cannot be paid, as this would cause great social tension. But some television content may be the subject of profit. The need for self-sufficiency makes TV companies think about selling their product.
Pay and free TV
WoAll over the world, television begins its history with free broadcasting. Governments are investing in its development, which understand its high social significance. Federal TV channels distribute their broadcasts for free, and it was only in the 70s that the idea of pay TV appeared. The first commercial television company was founded in the USA in 1973. After 7 years, the same channels appear in Western Europe. In Russia, the first television company with paid broadcasting - TV "Cosmos" - appeared in 1991. The problem of pay and free TV is increasing with the development of cable and satellite networks in the late 90s.
In 1997, Russia adopted a federal law on television broadcasting, which establishes the universal availability of television channels. However, the law did not say anything about paying for receiving television programs. Gradually, in the broadcasting cable and satellite companies, free federal channels were crowded with paid content. This led some TV companies to charge fees for providing access to federal channels, which any TV owner could watch for free. Thus, the Tricolor company, whose federal channels in the package were paid for along with other channels, created a precedent and limited access to the programs of federal television companies. A wide response forced the government to adopt additions to the law that guaranteed human rights to free access to television broadcasting. The Ministry of Communications made a decision to amend the Law “On Mass Media and Television Broadcasting”, which, in order to ensurerights of citizens, a list of free channels was announced.
Guaranteed List of Free Channels
September 4, 2015, the Ministry of Communications approved a new list of federal channels. All operators are obliged to provide them for viewing free of charge. This list included 20 channels, and it was already the second multiplex connected in Russia. Due to economic problems in the country, the commissioning of the third multiplex has been postponed until 2018, it will have 10 more free channels. Today, you can watch the following channels for free in all Russian networks: Channel One, the VGTRK package (TV channels Russia 1, 2, Russia K, Russia 24, NTV), Public Television of Russia, children's channel Karusel, TV CENTER, Ren-TV, SPAS, STS, Domashny channel, TV-3, SPORT-PLUS, Zvezda, Mir, TNT and music channel MUZ-TV. The channels included in the list belong to different owners and are distributed throughout the country.
Free VGTRK channels
The All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company is the owner of the package, which includes the federal channels of Russia: Match, Russia 1, Russia K and Russia 24. The media holding was established in 1990, the main founder was the government of the Russian Federation. Channel "Russia 1" covers more than 98% of the Russian population. It hosts socio-political, informational and entertainment programs of its own production, the brand name of the channel is the Vesti program, which has one of the highest ratings in the country. "Match" was created on the basis ofthe former channel "Russia-sport" and is completely devoted to the coverage of sporting events. Channel "Culture" is the only channel about cultural events, absolutely free of advertising.
Free channels of Gazprom-Media
Gazprom-Media media holding package includes federal channels NTV, TNT, TV-3, Sport-Plus. The audience coverage of the holding's channels is approximately 90 million people. NTV is positioned as a channel for thinking people with an active lifestyle. It hosts programs covering significant events in the country and the world. NTV produces a large volume of various programs for a wide audience: "Housing Problem", "Evening Television", "Special Reporter". The TNT channel is positioned as a fashionable and bold channel for positive and active young people. TV-3 is an entertainment channel, with an emphasis on mysticism and secrets. The special content of the channel is its own programs on the topics of esotericism, magic, mysticism. "Sport Plus" is a sports channel dedicated to sports events, broadcasts and reviews.
Free channels of STS-Media
The content company "STS-Media" appeared in 1989, it enters the television market in 1996. Today, the holding manages the federal channels STS, Domashny and Muz-TV. STS is positioned as an entertainment channel for family viewing, there is no politics and boring information, but only leisure content. The main audience of STS is young people, the coverage of the channel is about 80% of the audienceRussia. The Domashny channel, as the name implies, is designed for a family audience, most of all for housewives. Special content is created for them - programs about fashion, cooking, children, secular news. The first musical television - this is how Muz-TV positions itself - this is a channel for a young audience who watches TV in the background.
Free channels of the National Media Group
The national media group appeared on the Russian market in 2008, through numerous mergers and acquisitions, a serious holding was formed, which manages federal channels: Channel One, Ren-TV, Channel Five. The country's most popular Channel One has the largest coverage and high ratings. The first positions itself as a "channel for everyone" and offers the most diverse program for people with different interests. Ren-TV is a channel with a vague positioning that offers various programs of its own production, including series. The fifth channel, which grew out of the Leningrad television, presents itself as a quality channel for smart people. Here, special attention is paid to its own information and analytical policy and the creation of documentaries.
Independent Free Channels
Also, several independent channels were included in the package of free federal channels. These are the federal channels TV Center, Mir, Public Television of Russia, Spas, Zvezda, Karusel. With the exception of "TV Center", all channels have a socialorientation. Karusel is a state project for children and youth. Spas was established by the Russian Orthodox Church and covers its activities. "Mir" was founded to tell about news and events in the Commonwe alth of Independent States. Public Television of Russia was established in 2013 to discuss acute social problems and to develop civil society. Zvezda is a channel of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, designed to assist in the patriotic education of young people and talk about news in the military sphere. TV Center is a channel of the Moscow government that talks about city news.
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