2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
There are many lovers of both prose and poetry in the world. History knows many great people, poets and writers, whose talent still makes readers rethink their lives together with the heroes of the book. In this article, we will consider the work and brief biography of the following cultural figures:
- Johann von Schiller.
- A. S. Pushkin.
- Nikolai Gumilyov.
- Adam Mickiewicz.
- John Milton.
- Francois Villon.
- A. A. Akhmatova.
- Federico Garcia Lorca.
- Rasul Gamzatov.
These people have made an invaluable contribution to world poetic culture.
Biography of Johann von Schiller
The great poets of the world, without a doubt, include the German poet and playwright Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller. His family was the most ordinary - his mother was the daughter of a baker, and his father was a regimental paramedic. Despite his dream of becoming a priest, Schiller graduated from the military academy and received the rank of regimental doctor.
Even as a student, Johann was engaged in dramaturgy, for which he was persecuted by the then authorities. Schiller's most famous poems are"Robbers", "Fiesco", "Cunning and Love", "Don Carlos". Also, the German poet organized such literary publications as "Almanac of Muses", "Ory", "Thalia".
Famous works of Johann von Schiller and their most interesting story
As mentioned above, some of Schiller's most famous poems were "Robbers", "Fiesco's Conspiracy in Genoa", "Deceit and Love", and "Don Carlos". The times were quite conservative, and in order for the whole world to recognize Schiller in the future, he had to fight for his passion for poetry.
For the fact that the drama "Robbers" was staged in the Mannheim theater without the permission of the ruling duke, Schiller was put in a guardhouse and ordered to do only medicine. One of the world's great poets had to flee the Duchy of Württemberg in order to continue his creative work. Subsequently, the director of the Mannheim Theater concludes a contract with Schiller, according to which the future Johann becomes the official playwright at the theater and stages his old plays, on which work was carried out even before the flight from the duchy - "The Fiesco Conspiracy in Genoa" and "Cunning and Love". The latter was a resounding success.
The most famous Russian poet
This, of course, is the poet Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin. He was born in 1799 in the German Quarter. The future great poet of the world grew up in a noble family, where his nanny and grandmother were mainly involved in his upbringing. Then he entered the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, wherestudied the children of officials from the upper class. It was in the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum that Pushkin began to write his first poems, devoted mainly to friendship and comradely relations. His creative impulses were approved by his lyceum comrades.
In 1817, Pushkin graduated from the Lyceum and entered the civil service, where, in fact, he was simply listed. He was a member of literary clubs such as "Arzamas" and "Green Lamp", later he was exiled to the south for allegedly provocative activities, although he was not formally considered an exile. During the three years of the so-called punishment, he wrote such works as "Boris Godunov", "Prisoner of the Caucasus", "Song of the Prophetic Oleg".
Creativity of A. S. Pushkin. December Uprising
In the summer of 1823, Pushkin, one might say, was transferred under the care of Count Vorontsov, a talented nobleman changed his place of residence and moved to Odessa. With the count, the poet Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin developed a very strained relationship, which forced Vorontsov to send the ward to his mother's estate under the supervision of the local authorities. The city by the sea was replaced by solitude, which brightened up only communication with the Osipov-Wulf family and conversations with the nanny, who read poetry and fairy tales to him in the long evenings. In fact, it was a link where Pushkin was formed as a realist writer. He works on such works as "Eugene Onegin", finishes "Boris Godunov", and also writes famous poems "Davydov", "On Vorontsov", "On AlexanderI".
Later, he gets the news about the Decembrist uprising on December 14, 1825 and that many of his friends have been arrested. Alexander Pushkin destroys evidence and autobiographical notes that he kept in order not to increase the number of victims of persecution.
The fate of Nikolai Gumilyov
Gumilyov's collections of poems were withdrawn from circulation at the beginning of the twentieth century with the advent of Soviet power. This poet believed that it was possible not only to influence the minds of people with the help of poetry, but also to change the surrounding reality.
Nikolay Gumilyov can be safely called the great poet of the world, the legend of the Silver Age. His main idea has always been the triumph of the power of the spirit over carnal desires. Throughout his life, Gumilev set himself impossible tasks. He did this only because otherwise the inspiration would not come to him, which motivated him to write brilliant poems.
He was born in Kronstadt, and after the resignation of his father, the family moved to St. Petersburg. From childhood, Nikolai was a rather sickly child: he smelled too much and suffered from migraines. Despite this, he wrote his first poem "Niagara Lived" at the age of six.
In the gymnasium, Gumilyov was carried away only by Nietzsche's poetry, which significantly affected his academic progress for the worse.
Creativity of the genius of the Silver Age
After graduating from high school, Gumilyov goes to Paris. He took part in the publishing house of the literary magazine "Sirius",met with the masters of Russian poetry, who at first were skeptical about the work of the young poet. By the way, after he declared the poem "Androgyne" they changed their minds.
In 1908, the writer went on a trip to Egypt. At first he behaved like a typical tourist, and later, when the money ran out, he starved and lived on the street. Strange, but it was this life that inspired him to write such poems and stories as "Rat", "Jaguar", "Giraffe", "Rhino", "Hyena", "Leopard" and "Ship", which were later included in the collection of poems Gumilyov.
Interesting, but before going abroad, Gumilyov wrote a collection of poems called "Captains", the general idea of which was a craving for travel.
Poetry of Poland
Adam Mickiewicz is a great Polish poet, the founder of Polish romanticism, one of the leaders of the national liberation movement in Poland.
Folk tales of the Slavic peoples, which he heard from his maid, had a huge influence on the poet's work. Since childhood, he was interested in folk rites, which he went to watch with his friend while still a schoolboy. One of Adam's first poems was a poem written on the occasion of the great fire in Poland in 1810.
Mickiewicz wrote such works as the collection of poems "Poetry", the poems "Grazyna", "Dzyady", "Konrad Wallenrod". In 1824 he was sent into exile in Russia, where he began to communicate closely with the Decembrists, in particular with A. S. Pushkin. In exile, he wrote the third part of the poem "Dzyady" and the poem "Pan Tadeusz" which was inspired by the history of old Polish life and was officially recognized as a masterpiece of verbal painting in Poland. He also taught Slavic literature in Paris. He was the editor of the democratic newspaper Tribune de Ashes.
Poems by John Milton
John Milton is an outstanding figure in English journalism, who made a huge contribution to the development of English poetry. Unlike many great people, he did not suffer at a young age, his life became more difficult much later.
His first poems are light and inspired. For example, L'Allegro ("Cheerful") and Il Penseroso ("Thoughtful") describe the same person in two different moods - upbeat and thoughtful. These are the first and last works by Milton to feature this lightness.
Lycidas ("Lysidas") is a patriotic poem, the meaning of which is not only in the description of rural life, but also in love for the motherland.
Comus ("Comus") - a dramatic poem by Milton, revealing the versatility of the author.
Sarcasm in medieval literature. Is it possible?
François Villon is a representative of French poetry, who was distinguished by the sharpness of the verse, sarcasm, allegory and gloomy humor. This presentation of his work made Villon a truly unique phenomenon in medieval literature.
His work was a reflection of his lifestyle - he regularly got into dubiousincidents, participated in all sorts of scams, contacted bad companies. Once, with his classmates, he stole a stone from the estate of a countess, which had an inappropriate name, to which he dedicated his first verse. The most famous works of the poet are "Small Testament" and "Big Testament", which jokingly describes the values that Francois is going to leave as a legacy to posterity. Also known are his works such as "Ballad-prayer to the Mother of God", "Ballad of Parisian ladies", "Ballad-argument with Franck Gauthier", "Epitaph or Ballad of the hanged", "Ballad of forgiveness".
Anna Andreevna Akhmatova's poems about love are familiar to everyone and at different times found a response in the heart of any woman. She said about herself that she was born in the same year as Tolstoy's Kreutzer Sonata, Charlie Chaplin and the Eiffel Tower. She survived two eras, the blockade of Leningrad, two world wars, a change of power. The first poem was written by Anna at the age of 11, and since then poetry has become her vocation.
In 1912, the first collection of poems by Akhmatova, en titled "Evening", was published. This first poetic experience of the girl was perceived by the St. Petersburg public with great interest. In the same year, Akhmatova and Nikolai Gumilev had a son, Lev Gumilev, who later became a scientist.
Shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the second collection of the poetess was published under the title"Beads". Oddly enough, love poems did not drown in the revolutionary events of that time, gained popularity and were reprinted as many as eight times.
Federico Garcia Lorca
The life, death and poems of Federico Garcia Lorca are phenomena shrouded in mystery, incomprehensible at first sight. To reliably understand the motives of the actions of this person, it is not enough just to read his biography. It is necessary to be imbued with his personality, mentally feel the events of his life. This is a talented poet and playwright, musician and artist, and at the same time an ordinary person with an unusual fate. His talent as a poet is truly unique.
"Book of Poems" is the largest collection of the poet's works. It was written much earlier than it was published. According to Lorca, these verses perfectly described the days of his youth. Federico was influenced by famous poets such as Jiménez and Machado. Lorca tries his hand at different genres. This is an elegy, madrigal, ballad, romance. These peculiar poems, more like children's counting rhymes, would later become the basis for his poem en titled "When Five Years Pass". Federico Garcia Lorca was the author of such collections as "The Poem of the Cante Jondo", "Gypsy Romancero", "Ode to Salvador Dali", "Funeral Lamentation for Ignacio Sánchez Mejias", "Tamarita Divan", "Poet in New York", " Sonnets of dark love".
Rasul Gamzatov was born on September 8, 1923 in one of the villages of Dagestan. For the first time his talent manifested itself at a fairly young age, when overthe village of Tsada, where the boy lived, an airplane flew over. Under the influence of Rasul's overflowing emotions, the first verse arose.
Creativity of Rasul Gamzatov became interested. The newspaper "Bolshevik mountains" became the first official publication where the works of the young talent were published. From school and during his student days, Rasul Gamzatov continued to publish in this newspaper. After graduating from university and receiving a higher pedagogical education, Gamzatov began working as a teacher in a small rural school in Dagestan, which now proudly bears his name.
In 1943, the first collection of works by Rasul Gamzatov was published. The poems were mainly on military topics, and in them the young man admired the heroism of Soviet soldiers. The Great Patriotic War claimed the lives of both poet's brothers, which was also reflected in his work and affected his further attitude towards armed conflicts.
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