2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
In the article, consider who Yanka Kupala was. This is a famous Belarusian poet who became famous for his work. Consider the biography of this person, dwell in detail on his work, life and career path. Yanka Kupala was a rather versatile person who tried himself as an editor, playwright, translator and publicist.
Who are you talking about?
Let's start with the fact that the hero of our article was engaged in creativity under a pseudonym. His real name is Ivan Dominikovich Lutsevich. This is an outstanding Belarusian cultural figure, who is considered a representative of the classical trend in literature. He is a laureate of the Stalin Prize of the first degree, as well as a people's poet and academician.
It would be logical to consider the biography of Yanka Kupala from his childhood years. The man was born in the summer of 1882 in a small town in Belarus. The family was Catholic, very religious. Ivan's parents were poor gentry who rented land forgrowing grain and vegetables. However, the Lutsevich family dates back to the 18th century.
Despite this, the boy's childhood passed in constant difficulties. He helped his father with housework and chores. Regularly had to work hard to find the means to live. Despite the fact that the family was of noble origin, she lived modestly and poorly. In 1902, his father died, and the guy had to get a job as a teacher. The care of the whole family fell on his young shoulders, and he steadfastly carried this burden. He also tried himself as a clerk, clerk, etc. He often had to change jobs in search of a higher salary, so he tried everything he could. He grabbed every chance of a job, did not shy away from work.
There was a period when he even had to become an ordinary worker in a winery. There he worked for a long time, despite the fact that hard work took up a lot of free time, and he practically did not have time to educate himself. However, Yanka Kupala tried to devote time to self-development, thanks to which he read all the books from his father's library, which was quite rich. In 1898, the hero of our article graduated from the National School.
In 1908 he moved to Vilnius, where he got a job at the editorial office of a Belarusian newspaper. There he meets a beautiful girl, Vladislava Stankevich, whom he will call his wife in the future. However, there he meets the actress Pavlina Myadelka. For some time he was very fond of her, and even named after the girlthe main character of her play. But this quick and fleeting passion passed, and later a relationship began with Vladislava.
About this period of life, a man writes a poem that will glorify him and be one of the most famous. He composes a verse called "And who goes there?". It is interesting that initially the man wanted to name the verse “Belarusians”. The poem was translated into Russian by Maxim Gorky, who called it harsh but beautiful. It was Gorky who said that this poem would be the national anthem of Belarus. This is what actually happened.
After that Yanka Kupala wrote poetry even more actively. He developed creatively and was at the peak of inspiration. His works were translated by various poets, writers and translators. Based on his poem, they even wrote the National Anthem of Udmurtia.
In 1909, a young man began attending A. Chernyaev's general education courses in St. Petersburg. After that, in 1915, he studied at the Moscow People's University. The educational institution was founded thanks to the influence of a fairly well-known philanthropist Alfons Shanyavsky and his family.
Unfortunately, the hero of our article could not finish his studies, because the mobilization associated with the First World War began. In 1916, the poet was drafted into the army, and he boldly goes towards fate. He was assigned to the road construction department, where he was until the start of the October Revolution. At that time, the poet lived in Smolensk and worked.
Unexpectedly, he learned about the revolution. From 1916to 1918 he did not write a single verse. Later in his work, he addressed the issues of the existence of a person and an entire people at historical turning points. To understand how Janka saw this period, it is necessary to refer to his poems dating back to 1919: “For the Fatherland”, “Inheritance”, “Time”, “To His People”.
When the revolution ended, the man decided to settle in Minsk. I must say that the Soviet-Polish war did not change his way of life. He steadfastly survived the Polish occupation and did not leave his beloved city.
Yanka Kupala's poems in Polish were actively published in magazines and newspapers. The first poem he wrote in Belarusian was called "My Share". It is believed that it was written in the summer of 1904. The poet's debut is considered the verse "Man", which was published in 1905. It was with him that the active growth of a man as a poet began. Folklore themes are characteristic of Yankee's early creative years.
In 1907, he began active cooperation with the Nasha Niva newspaper. He writes several poems, the main theme of which is the oppression of peasants and social inequality.
For two years, from 1911 to 1913, Yanka lived with his sisters and mother on the family estate. It was here that he wrote about 80 poems, several plays and poems. By the way, today only the foundation, a small gazebo and an old well remain from this estate.
In 1912, Kupala wrote his first comedy play. Soon she will be left on stage in St. Petersburg, then sheappears in the theaters of Vilnius. Until 1919, he writes several more poems, which the public enthusiastically accepts.
Poet Yanka Kupala was a freedom-loving and free man who followed his heart. His work changed after the beginning of the Soviet era.
At this time, thoughts about a bright future come to the fore in his work. The poet sincerely believed that the Belarusian people would live better, and the Soviet government would be able to carry out fundamental changes and improve the standard of living of people.
Almost before the Great Patriotic War, he constantly wrote about a brighter future. During this period, he released several collections, namely "From the Heart", "Song to Construction", "Inheritance", "Taras' Dole", etc.
The most interesting thing is that the poet's relations with representatives of the Soviet government did not develop very smoothly. This is very strange, given that he supported the regime in his work.
The period from 1920 to 1930 was very difficult for a poet. He was accused of unreliability, and newspapers and magazines began a rather harsh persecution. He, as the main charge, was presented with a nationalist attitude. It was said that in a difficult historical period he supported the movement for the national liberation of Belarus, and even was a member.
He was interrogated at the GPU for a long and painful time, which eventually even led to an attempt to commit suicide. In personal letters, he wrote that apparently poets and writers have such a share - to be misunderstood and slandered. However, in order to get rid of persecution and avoid various problems, hewrote an open letter. He was forced to do so by poor he alth. Ivan needed peace, not constant torture and interrogation. In the letter, the man confessed to all his alleged sins and publicly promised that he would not make such mistakes again.
Nevertheless, the poems of Yanka Kupala are a real hymn that affirms the rights of people and peoples to their identity and development path.
The man was awarded the Stalin Prize of the first degree, which he received in 1941 for a collection called "From the Heart." In the winter of 1939, he received the Order of Lenin.
Creativity of Yanka Kupala during World War II
When hostilities began, many turned to the hopeful poems of the poet. With a word, he could restore people's motivation and encourage them to fight, to fight. Therefore, Kupala did not interrupt his creative activity and actively wrote patriotic poems. Interestingly, they had a pronounced anti-fascist orientation.
The poet was forced to leave Minsk and settle in Pechischi. This is a small settlement, which is located near Kazan. He tried to distance himself from everything that was happening in order to focus on his work. As you know, the poetic talent of the author was formed on the basis of classical traditions and Belarusian literature of the late 19th century. Thanks to this, he was able to organically combine patriotic and folk motifs that energized people and allowed them to look to the future with hope and confidence.
BesidesThe fact that Yanka Kupala wrote his own works, he was actively involved in translations. So, it was he who translated The Tale of Igor's Campaign into Belarusian in 1919. Note that this was the first literary translation of this work. He also translated poems by Alexander Pushkin, Taras Shevchenko, Nikolai Nekrasov, Ivan Krylov, Maria Konopnitskaya, etc.
Yanka Kupala translated "The Internationale". This is the international anthem of the proletarians. For the sake of justice, it should be noted that the works of the author himself were also translated into many languages. His collections were even translated into Yiddish.
The man was married to Vladislav Lutsevich. There were no children in the marriage, but the couple lived a long and happy life. The poet also had a sister, Leokadiya Romanovskaya.
Practically nothing is known about the man's personal life, because during his lifetime he tried not to talk about it. The wife also avoided public statements and interviews.
Interestingly, in one of her rare public appearances, she said that at the first meeting, her future husband did not make any impression on her at all. Yanka Kupala's family consisted of his wife, sister and parents. It is still not known exactly why the couple did not have children. Whether because the spouses did not want to, or maybe for other reasons.
The cause of Yanka Kupala's death is still a rather vague question.
So, let's start with the fact that in June 1942 the poet stayed at the Moscow Hotel. It is there that he is completelydied unexpectedly. Initially, it was assumed that he was intoxicated, because of this he fell down the stairs. But this is a completely unfounded version for the simple reason that the man never drank and had serious contraindications regarding alcohol.
It is also suspicious that just a few hours before his mysterious death, he was very cheerful, joyful and full of hope. He talked with friends, treated them and in every possible way invited them to his future anniversary. That is why the news of his death shocked everyone who knew him. No one believed that he really could have stumbled on the stairs between the ninth and tenth floors. However, death came instantly.
Today, almost no one believes in the official version of the death of the poet. There are still rumors that he did not die by accident. There were versions connected with suicide or murder. However, the first option is unlikely, because that period of the man's life was quite interesting and eventful, and he had no reason to commit suicide. He's been through much worse times.
There is a version according to which a man was seen in the company of a woman shortly before his death. They say that it was the same Pavlina Myadelka - a hobby of youth.
Initially, the poet was buried at the Vagankovsky cemetery in the capital of Russia. However, today the grave of Yanka Kupala is located in Minsk at a military cemetery. The ashes of the poet were transferred there in 1962. Next to him lies his mother, who died the day after her son died. She did not know about his tragicdeath, and died in occupied Minsk. A large beautiful memorial was erected over the poet's grave.
The poet was immortalized in history. In 1982, a biographical book was published about him from the series "Life of Remarkable People". A large number of streets and settlements, as well as various organizations in Belarus, were named after the poet.
In Minsk, the following are named after him: the National Academic Theatre, the city library, the metro station, the park, the Institute of Literature. In many cities of Belarus there are streets named after him, they are also in Russia, Ukraine. In the Israeli city of Ashdod, there is Yanka Kupala Square, which was renamed in his honor in 2012. There are also streets in Poland named after the poet. In 2003, the complete collection of the author's works was published, which was released in 9 volumes.
There is a literary museum of Yanka Kupala in Minsk, which was opened in 1945. There are branches of this museum on the Akopa farm. There is a small museum dedicated to the work and life of the poet in the village of Pechishchi.
Monuments to the outstanding poet were erected in Minsk, Moscow, in his native village of Vyazynka. Also, a monument was erected in Grodno and Araipark (USA).
In 1992, the Russian Bank issued a copper-nickel coin with a face value of 1 ruble dedicated to the 110th anniversary of the poet's birth. In 2002, the National Belarusian Bank issued a copper-nickel coin with a face value of 1 ruble, dedicated to the 120th anniversary of the birth of the great tamer of literature. ATIn honor of a man, a musical-theatrical opera, owned by Andrey Skorinkin, was also written.
The poet's work and his biography have been filmed more than once. So, he was mentioned in certain films in 1952, 1971, 1972, 1981. In 2007, the musical Peacock was released, directed by Alexander Butor.
It's interesting that Lyapis Trubetskoy's group has two songs written on the verses of Yanka Kupala.
Summarizing, we note that the man was a wonderful poet and a brave man who was not afraid to follow his dream against all odds. He had to deal with harassment and humiliation more than once, but he staunchly defended the rights of the people.
He did not go ahead, he knew how to keep silent in time, but nevertheless he never abandoned his fundamental ideas and thoughts. He considered it his duty to support the people and revive their fighting spirit. For this, he was loved not only in Belarus, but throughout the world.
It is incredible that the memory of Yanka Kupala is still in different parts of the world. He made a huge contribution not only to Belarusian, but also to world literature, which cannot be overestimated. Unfortunately, this outstanding man died at the age of 60. Perhaps he would have written a large number of poems and poems that delighted and delighted the public. We can only cherish the memory of the poet and popularize his work among young people.
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