2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Evola Julius is a famous Italian philosopher, also known as an esotericist. He distinguished himself in literature and political activity. A prominent representative of integral traditionalism, he studied occultism and esotericism. Some researchers consider him one of the main ideologists of neo-fascism. It is worth noting that his writings had a significant impact on representatives of the European far right, some terrorist organizations were inspired by them. Especially those that operated in Italy in the 70s.
Childhood and youth
Evola Julius was born in Rome in 1898. He was born into an aristocratic family. He is credited with German and Spanish origin. He studied at the University of Rome at the Faculty of Engineering. But he never received his diploma. He refused it, saying that he was convinced that the world is divided into people who know and have a diploma.
Participated in the First World War Evola Julius. It is known that he was an officer in the artillery unit.
Then, until 1923, he worked closely with magazines and other periodicals, was fond of painting. In this art has achieved some success. One of his works is now housed in the National Gallery of Modern Art.
About thatAt the same time, Julius Evola became acquainted with the works of the French philosopher Rene Guenon. He began to write articles for the journal Fascist Criticism. It was published in Italy at that time by Giuseppe Bottai. He was one of the main theorists of corporatism, in the fascist government of Mussolini he became the Minister of Education. It was in this edition that Evola first published his work "Pagan Imperialism", which was repeatedly criticized in Catholic circles.
Passion for fascism
At one time, Evola published his own magazine called "The Tower". He managed to release ten issues. After that it was closed. Already in the first issue, he stated that the publication would uphold principles that are above any political level. It is the affirmation of the ideas of hierarchy, authority and empire in the broadest sense. At the same time, it did not matter to him what system these ideas were in - fascist, anarchist, communist or democratic.
Since 1934, Evola has collaborated with the magazine "Fascist System". Until 1943, he maintained a permanent column called "Philosophical Diorama". The publisher of this magazine was a member of the Great Fascist Council, Mussolini's ally Roberto Farinacci.
In 1939, the hero of our article met in Romania with the leader of the local far-right political party "Iron Guard" Corneliu Zelia Codreanu. Many believe that it was this trip that made a great impression on Baron Evola. He was delighted with the way the Iron Guard was organized, highlyappreciated everything he did and said to Codreanu, whom his associates called Captain.
Later, many of the ideas of the Romanian nationalist were directly reflected in the writings of Evola. In the Captain, the hero of our article saw the Aryan-Roman type, which many sought to find.
Many biographers of the philosopher believe that in Codreanu he considered a mystical leader who is able to establish any connection, even spiritual, with ordinary activists. This movement was organized as an order of chivalry, not at all like a political party in the usual way. Evola was captivated by Codreanu's loy alty to Romanian history and traditions, as well as his spiritual and racial outlook. All this turned the Eastern European leader into an ideal Leader who was able to lead the elite through the ruins of the modern world.
Evola's life after the war
The end of the Second World War, Evola caught the analysis of numerous Masonic archives stored in Vienna. In the Austrian capital, he came under massive bombardment and suffered a spinal injury. As a result, his lower limbs were completely paralyzed.
Despite such severe injuries, he continued to write in the 50s and 60s. Julius Evola devoted many of his books to the analysis of the history of Nazism and fascism. At the same time, he strongly criticized contemporary society. He argued that the defeat of the countries of the Nazi coalition does not mean the rejection of the ideas of traditionalism.
Evola died in Rome in 1974. Right at your desk with a great viewon Janiculum Hill. He was 76 years old. According to the will, the body was cremated, and the ashes were buried in a glacier at the top of Monte Rosa.
One of the program works of Julius Evola - "Pagan Imperialism". This is a philosophical and political treatise that was written in 1928. Considered to be one of the seminal works of the Italian traditionalist philosopher.
The book was originally published in Italian, later it was translated into many foreign languages. Including in Russian. The translation was made by the philosopher Alexander Dugin. Researchers note that this book by Julius Evola had a huge impact on supporters and adherents of traditionalism, and especially on the ultra-right, fascist movement.
In this treatise, Evola explicitly declares himself anti-European, formulates the conditions for the existence of an empire, points out the obvious mistakes of democracy, explores the roots of the European ailment, and also talks about what could become a new European symbol.
Researchers noted that in this book, Evola severely criticized modern Western values, accusing the West of being mired in sentimentalism, materialism and utilitarianism, and also lost touch with the source of its own being, that is, with traditions.
Despite the fact that Evola himself later admitted that many of the ideas expressed in this treatise were exaggerated and ambiguous, it was not reprinted during his lifetime. "Pagan imperialism" is considered a classic monumenttraditionalists, contains the main doctrines that have become widespread among a variety of authors. Sometimes holding opposing views.
The Hermetic Tradition
In 1931 Julius Evola wrote the book "The Hermetic Tradition". In this work, he sets out the fundamental foundations of the theory and practice of the Royal Art. For the esoteric Evola, this was an extremely important job. It is worth noting that it was the result of many years of research, as well as practical experience of the author.
In them he managed to combine the integral experience of his communication with various representatives of initiatory organizations. Evola himself did a lot of experiments, and also read a lot of specialized literature on this topic.
In the Hermetic Tradition, Evola, with his unique erudition and amazing intuition, considers alchemy in the widest possible context as one of the magical disciplines. Such a view of things was inherent only to aristocrats in spirit and blood, to which the hero of our article referred himself.
In this work, he manages to demonstrate the true essence of alchemy. In his opinion, it lies in the initiatory path, which leads to liberation from the conventions of human existence. The ultimate goal is to gain the royal crown of a Hermetic adept.
Rebellion against the modern world
In Russia, the second most popular book of thisauthor, after "Pagan Imperialism", is another of his philosophical and political treatise "Rebellion against the modern world". Julius Evola divides this work into two parts - "The World of Tradition" and "The Origin and Shape of the Modern World".
The treatise was first published by a Milanese publishing house in 1934. It was later translated into most European languages. In Russian in full, without cuts, appeared only in 2016. This work had a great influence on the traditionalist discourse, the neo-fascist movement.
In the first part of his work, Evola evaluates and compares the doctrines of traditional civilizations in his understanding. The author clearly indicates the principles by which one can recreate the image of the traditional form of human life.
He bases all this on the principle of the doctrine of two natures, and also introduces the concepts of metaphysical and physical orders. Evola talks in detail about caste, initiation, the Empire. On all this, in his view, the traditional civilization of the future should be based. His ideal is a rigid Indian-style caste system.
In the second part of his book, Evola interprets history from the positions of traditionalism close to him. He begins with the origins of mankind, and ends with the contemporary concept of Darwin's theory of evolution. The popularization of this theory, in his opinion, is evidence of the promotion of anti-traditional ideas in order to distort the original knowledge, increase the decline in society and in each individual person.
Manyattention in this treatise is given to the Ario-Vedic tradition. Evola claims that it was on her principles that the foundations of religious and political institutions in ancient Indo-European societies were based.
Evola develops the ideas of René Guénon in this book. He also accepts the Hindu concept of the existence of a golden, silver, bronze and iron age, regarding modernity as the dark age of the Kali Yuga.
This piece by Evola is of great importance. He learned many ideas from Guénon. But unlike the French philosopher, who preferred to observe the crisis of the modern world, having left Europe, Evola is going to actively resist the destructive processes that surround him. This position is reflected in the title of the treatise.
As Evola himself later admitted, his version of traditionalism was influenced by Nietzsche and his ideas about the superman.
In this book, he formulated the theory of caste regression. He stated that world civilization is degrading from male Uranism to female Tellurism. And the priests and warriors in India were originally one caste, which fell apart as a result of the weakening of the masculine principle.
Awakening Doctrine: Essays on Buddhist Asceticism
At the height of World War II, in 1943, Evola published The Doctrine of Awakening: Essays on Buddhist Asceticism.
Julius Evola in "The Doctrine of Awakening" reveals to the reader the foundations of the ascetic system, which is described in detail in Buddhism. The author believes that the teaching itself,founded by Siddhartha, is highly aristocratic. Asceticism in it acts as a science and a school of spiritual liberation.
Ascesis he associates with the great Tradition, in which the realm of the spirit determines the material world. Evola sets himself the goal of solving a complex practical problem - to make this ascetic system accessible and clear to any modern person. And this is especially difficult, because, as Evola notes, modern society, like no other, is “as far as possible from the ascetic perception of life.”
Modern society philosopher perceives as a world of feverish race in a vicious circle. Such quotes by Julius Evola help to better understand his ideas. Ascetic concentration is necessary to clear a place for a decisive vertical breakthrough. Moreover, this should not be an escape from the outside world, but only a means to release forces for spiritual rebirth.
Ride the tiger
Treatise "Riding the Tiger" Julius Evola wrote in 1961. It is for those who are dissatisfied with the modern world and are already tired of indulging themselves with the illusions of progress. But it is also suitable for those who have given up on the world around them for the sake of self-improvement and the salvation of their souls.
In it the reader will find the opinion that the world around him is far from being called the best possible. When writing this treatise, Evola pursued the goal of helping those who doubt that it is man who is the crown of creation to everything, but at the same time does not find enough strength in himself to resist generally accepted stereotypes and beliefs, preferringto go with the flow. This book should cheer up such people, help them change their position.
The treatise "Riding the Tiger" by Julius Evola contains guidelines that will help those who are convinced that the human condition is only one of the possible. But at the same time, it has meaning, and life here and now is not a banal accident and not a punishment for some sin, but one of the stages of a long and long journey.
Metaphysics of War
The collection of articles by Julius Evola "The Metaphysics of War" deserves special mention. All of them are united by one theme - the theme of war.
According to the author, above all material and physical consequences are the consequences of a spiritual nature. In this regard, he discusses in detail the theme of the personal heroic experience of each individual person. For Evola, it is important to address the possible consequences of war for modern society, he considers new types of heroism, as well as racial aspects that could lead to armed confrontation.
Julius Evola pays great attention to the theme of the so-called "holy war" in "The Metaphysics of War". Arguing on this subject, he turns to Indo-Aryan, Scandinavian and Roman sources.
Ultimately, Evola sees war as a means of man's spiritual transformation. It is the war, according to the author, that makes it possible to surpass oneself.
"Empire of the Sun" by Julius Evola
Another collection of Evola's articles published in Russia enjoys popularity. It's called "Empire of the Sun". It contains hisprogram symbolic, political and metaphysical articles. The traditional strong Nordic spirit is clearly manifested when discussing the problems of our time.
Articles published in this interesting collection are devoted to traditional symbolism, the imperial idea, racial issues and neo-paganism.
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