2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
The Kholuy miniature, born in the Ivanovo region, is a kind of traditional Russian lacquer miniature. Being the youngest among similar crafts of Palekh, Mstera and Fedoskino, it occupies a worthy place among them and is highly valued both in the country and abroad.
Icon painters of the village of Kholuy
The first documentary mention of the village dates back to the 16th century. The letter testifies that these lands belong to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, where the kholuyans supplied the s alt mined here. This was in 1546. But already half a century later, in 1613, the village was granted to Dmitry Pozharsky for protecting Moscow from the Poles, and it was characterized as an “icon-painting place.”
The lacquer miniature of all four settlements was born on the basis of icon painting. According to experts, Kholuy occupied a priority place in this type of painting. Perhaps the first icon painters were the monks of the local monastery belonging to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, they could teach this art to local residents. Later, the training of children acute to the concept andicon painting”, as well as students from the neighboring villages of Shuya and Mstera.
Kholui at the end of the 17th century becomes the bearer of the tradition of icon painting of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, and due to the growing demand for icons, it develops very quickly. Local icon painters received orders from the northern regions of Russia, Siberia, Bulgaria and Serbia.
Transition to lacquer production
After the revolution and the prohibition of the icon-painting craft, the lackeys were left without work. Unlike their neighbors, who combined artistic craft with peasant labor, they earned their living only by painting icons. Many left the village in search of work, and the rest were looking for a use for their strengths.
The created artel was engaged in painting "rugs", as they called copies of famous paintings. But the masters were eager to realize their creative ideas, and in 1934 they decided to try painting a lacquer miniature.
Few people believed that Kholuy would be able to offer something of his own, different from the Palekh and Mstera styles already known by that time. But the artists were supported by Professor Bakushinsky, who formulated the goal to which one should go. This is how the Kholuy lacquer miniature was born.
Features of lacquer painting Kholuy
Bakushinsky suggested choosing a more realistic style for kholuy's works than those of the neighbors, but at the same time more decorative. The foundations were laid by the three oldest craftsmen S. A. Mokin, K. V. Kosterin and V. D. Puzanov. These three artists, having the same school of writing, differed in individualartistic manner. But the first steps were taken with great difficulty, and recognition did not come to the masters immediately.
Followers of the Kholuy masters tend to concretize the depicted object, bringing the drawing closer to real proportions and outlines. The bases of the color scheme of the Kholuy miniature are two keys: a warm, sandy-orange tone and a cold, blue-green. Additional shades are used only for contrasting revival of the picture. Gold and silver are used to a limited extent, only when depicting metal objects or in ornaments. The ornament itself is strict and restrained. Kholuy miniature painting attracts with its originality and discreet, but good beauty. To appreciate it, you need to be able to see all the details of the picture, from the plot itself to the ornamental pattern.
Development of miniature in Kholui
Artel subsequently became a city-forming enterprise and brought up many talents. The first exhibition that awarded Kholuy miniatures with bronze medals took place in 1937 in Paris. In subsequent years, the artists participated in all international exhibitions.
Over time, the theme of the drawing has expanded. Fragments of Russian fairy tales began to appear more often, the landscape could already be an independent drawing, and not the background of the main composition. The figures in motion began to be conveyed more convincingly, great attention was paid to the facial expressions of the characters. For the first time, architectural objects began to appear, which only beautified the drawing and expanded the theme.
Entering the international market
In 1961, the first international orders for Kholuy miniatures were received. England, USA, Germany and other European countries wanted to see the works of masters from Kholuy. The production output increased, the team of artists grew.
Today, the Kholuy lacquer miniature art factory operates in the village, which maintains the long tradition of papier-mache painting, not forgetting the rich experience of local icon painters.
Over the years of the fishery's existence, the technology has not undergone significant changes. Most of the stages of work are done manually, when the master transfers his warmth, his energy to the product. Therefore, things made in the village of Kholui only become more valuable and attractive over the years.
The first, rough stage of work is the creation of a naviv. This is a tube made of several layers of pressed cardboard, impregnated with linseed oil and dried in an oven. Coils can be of different shapes and sizes, depending on the intended products.
From the hardened winding, the master makes a blank for the product, primes it, grinds it and paints it with red and black varnish. Such a semi-finished product passes into the hands of the artist.
The recipe for making paints is kept secret by each factory, as it came to them from icon painter ancestors. The principle is the same: mineral powder is mixed with egg yolk, water and vinegar, but then there are additives that few people know about. Much attention is paid to the correct preparation of paints.attention, as this is a very important component in the successful creation of a miniature. Kholuy artists work only with squirrel brushes.
Cherry resin is added to the gold leaf to draw the ornament, this is one of the features of the product manufacturing process at the Kholuy lacquer miniature factory. The applied gold is then polished with a wolf's tooth.
The finished work is covered with several layers of varnish and polished until the smallest scratches disappear. This final process adds depth and brightness to the piece.
Museum in Kholuy
Each of the four centers of lacquer miniatures in Russia has its own museum, which stores the work of the oldest masters who started the difficult business of mastering the craft, and contemporary artists. It is here that one can understand the dynamics of the development of miniatures in the region, the preservation of tradition, the transfer of experience of older generations.
The Kholuy Museum of Lacquer Miniatures was created by local residents on a voluntary basis and opened in 1959. The population of the village for many years collected finished products in their homes, and then, without regret, gave valuable things to the village museum. They brought miniatures, sketches of drawings, icons, books, albums, as well as such household items as old banknotes, portraits and globes.
Renowned scientists were involved in the study and inventory of donations, who provided invaluable assistance in creating collections. The most significant of them are icons of Kholuy writing. This is the basis of the museum, participating in traveling exhibitions, training sessions, seminars. The collection of embroidery is rich, the collection includes the work of needlewomen from the 19th century to the present day. Kholuy embroiderers made a curtain for the Kremlin, which speaks of their high professionalism.
The lacquer miniature kept in the museum cannot be classified as ordinary works. These are high-quality works of Kholuy artists, each of which is unique. The museum fund is small, no more than five thousand items, but tourists visit it with pleasure to admire the work of Russian masters.
Since 2005, at the request of guests, an art salon has been operating at the museum, which allows you to take away not only a photo of a Kholuy miniature, but also a souvenir as a keepsake.
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