2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
From the article you can learn about the life path and work of A. I. Morozov. The analysis of the painting "Exit from the Church in Pskov" and the canvas "Rural Free School" was carried out, the themes of the works of Alexander Ivanovich Morozov were revealed. The features of the creative manner and its poetic genre are also considered.
Morozov Alexander Ivanovich - a true artist and Petersburger was born on May 17, 1835 in the family of an artist, a former "yard". Since 1852, a freelance student at the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, in the class of the artist Markov. During his studies, he was awarded medals: in 1857 for a portrait and drawing, in 1858 for a study and drawing, in 1861 the painting “Rest in the hayfield” was awarded a small gold medal.
In 1863, he applied for permission to freely choose subjects, was refused and left the Academy, although he continued to exhibit his paintings. The canvas "Exit from the Church in Pskov" brings him universal recognition and the title of academician.
Morozov Alexander Ivanovich is a bright type of contemplative artist. His life path isexperienced ups and downs, critics evaluated his work quite favorably, but it is difficult to call him an innovator or a rebel. Although, in his youth, A. I. Morozov always remained with fellow artists: he was one of those who left the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts (1863) after the "revolt of the fourteen" led by I. Kramskoy, was a member of the Artel of Artists and an exhibitor of a number of exhibitions of the Wanderers in 1864. But the spirit of rebellion, the fight against social inequality were alien to his nature as a whole. However, the theme of injustice and evil could not pass by the work of Alexander Ivanovich Morozov, an artist who paints the village of his time, and the realism that lives in every Russian artist could not help but manifest itself.
The bulk of the best works written by the artist are made in the genre of poeticized life of the contemporary artist of the Russian village (paintings "Rest on the hayfield", "Rural free school" and others). In this he is a clear follower of the artist A. G. Venetsianov from the layout of his works to the methods of typing peasant labor and the peasants themselves. The landscapes in the artist's paintings, sunny and warm, are also very close to the Venetian ones. Therefore, with the light hand of art historians A. N. Benois and I. E. Grabar, the artist was nicknamed the Belated Venetian.
But the genre painting of Russia of the 19th century cannot be considered complete without the picturesque paintings of Morozov Alexander Ivanovich. His paintings are simple, clear and beautiful. They have everything that the chronicler of Renaissance painting Giorgio Vasari in the 16th century called "good manner" andmuch appreciated.
Features of the artist's creative manner
Everything made by the artist Alexander Ivanovich Morozov, paintings or etchings, is done very carefully. In his work, you can see diligence and love. But the artistic heritage of Alexander Ivanovich Morozov is small, since the artist in his life did not earn money by creating paintings, but by dull tedious work: for about 30 years he taught at the St. Petersburg School of Law, teaching future lawyers to draw, and gave private lessons. In addition, he made many portraits to order.
It would hardly be correct to say that the work of Alexander Ivanovich Morozov is the personification of the era in which he lived. The paintings today adorn the expositions of the best Russian art museums: the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg and others.
Themes of works by Alexander Ivanovich Morozov
Morozov Alexander Ivanovich St. Petersburg, of course, knew. But the artist also loved the Russian village, Russian peasants. How good is the cheerful man drinking tea in his painting "Tea Party". The artist traveled around Russia many times, visited the Vladimir province, Pskov, Vyatka and the Volga region. He performed commissioned portraits and quite successfully (portrait of the young Count Apraksin, portrait of Mrs. Kornilova, etc.). In portraits, Alexander Ivanovich is also close to the works of the Venetsianov school. His brushes also belong to custom-made works for the churches of the North of Russia: Petrozavodsk, Polotsk, Pavlovsk and landowners' estates. Repeatedly the master worked in technologyetching, performed and miniature portraits to order.
Alexander Ivanovich Morozov is one of the very first Russian painters who drew attention to industrial work: his painting "Omutninsky Plant" (1885) is in the Tretyakov Gallery.
But he is best known as one of the most prominent in the circle, the so-called small genre painters - masters of narrating typical events of Russian rural reality, which the artist studied well on his trips.
Painting "Exit from the Church in Pskov"
This is one of the best works of Alexander Ivanovich. There is no main character on it: all the main ones. One of the features of the artist's canvases is the equality of the figures located on the canvas and their equal illumination, which immediately brings harmony and softens the sharpness of the depicted events and actions.
This also contributes to the color scheme of many light and warm tones. The expressiveness of each figure brings us back to the art of the Renaissance so much that you involuntarily look for angels. And, indeed - he is, he is in the very center of the picture. This is a girl who has just begun to walk in a magnificent white dress, guarded by the eyes of her elders, dressed in dark clothes. But these are background figures.
And the foreground reveals a completely different life: at the church you can get alms after the service, and this is a guarantee of some kind of dinner. The beggars in the picture are in picturesque rags, depicted so expressively that you again recall medieval Italians. But their poses, gestures and facial expressions are absolutely Russian. Frontplan: a rich woman pushed away the poor old people, but the children stretch out their hands again, they are so hoping for alms…
And the building of the temple is of such a light lemon-yellow tone that it seems not connected with everything that happens, it seems divinely beautiful and unearthly, different, unearthly.
This is what all the poor are counting on, by the grace of God. The rich are written out by the artist in a completely different way, they believe, first of all, in the power of money, they defend the service as a tribute to decency, they despise the poor and hate beggars. Of all the beggars turn to, only one woman, tired and not at all rich, gave alms. She has two small children and she knows what hunger is, she does not give too much, but she believes in God.
The picture is more alarming than outrageous, leaving a residue of what happened before your eyes, not a tragedy, but injustice.
The picture "Exit from the Church" attracts, does not let go, makes you think and feel.
Painting "Rural Free School"
The canvas depicts a large and bright room in a wooden house, where several lovely young women in puffy skirts, obviously not poor, are teaching village children to read and write on wooden benches at wooden tables.
The color of the picture is discreet, golden-brown tones prevail, the sunlight warms, makes everything in the room cozy, warm. The story about the village school is completed by the artist.
The picture was painted from nature, the models were the wife of Alexander Ivanovich Morozov and her friends, indeedinvolved with village children at school.
The picture is more than peaceful: it is absolutely unbelievable that someone can not be accepted to this school because of torn clothes or ignorance of elementary things. The atmosphere is saturated with kindness and understanding; there is no place in it for childish pranks, rudeness, or screaming. There can be no talk of corporal punishment. And this is not an ideal picture, but a real one. At that time, the teacher was a respected figure in rural schools, students of different ages often sat in the classrooms and each studied according to his own program, without interfering with his neighbors. The children loved going to school and respected the teachers. On the canvas of A. I. Morozov, this is striking.
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