2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
A literary movement is something that is often identified with a school or literary group. Means a group of creative individuals, they are characterized by programmatic and aesthetic unity, as well as ideological and artistic proximity.
In other words, this is a certain kind (as if a subgroup) of a literary trend. As applied, for example, to Russian romanticism, one speaks of "psychological", "philosophical" and "civil" currents. In Russian literary movements, scientists distinguish between "sociological" and "psychological" directions.
This is a direction and artistic style in the literature and art of Europe in the early 19th century. The name comes from the Latin word "classicus" - perfect.
Literary movements of the 19th century have their own characteristics:1. Appeal to the forms and images of ancient art and literature as an aesthetic standard, on this basis, the principle of "imitation of nature" is put forward, which implies compliance with strict rules that are drawn from ancient aesthetics.
2. The basis of aesthetics is the principle of rationalism (from the Latin "ratio" means reason), which affirms the views on works of art as an artificial creation - consciously created, reasonably organized, logically built.3. In classicism, there are no individual features in the images, since, first of all, they are designed to capture generic, stable, enduring signs over time, which act as the embodiment of many spiritual and social forces.
4. The social and educational function of art. A harmonious personality is brought up.
Sentimentalism (translated from English sentimental means "sensitive") - a trend in the literature and art of Europe in the 18th century. Enlightenment rationalism prepared with the help of the crisis, the Enlightenment is the final stage. Basically chronologically preceded romanticism, managed to convey some of its features to it.
Literary trends, poetry of this period has its own characteristics:
1. Sentimentalism remains true to the ideals of the normative personality.
2. Compared with classicism and its enlightening pathos, the core of “human nature” was declared not to be reason, but feeling.3. The condition for the formation of an ideal person was considered not a "competent world reorganization", but the improvement and release of "natural feelings".
4. The literary heroes of sentimentalism are more individualized: by origin (or conviction) they are democratic, the enriched spiritual world of commonersis one of the conquests of sentimentalism.5. Sentimentalism does not know about the "irrational": contradictory moods, impulsive spiritual impulses are perceived as accessible to rationalistic interpretations.
This is the largest literary movement in the literature of Europe and America in the late 18th - early 19th century. In this era, everything unusual, fantastic, strange, which is found only in books, was considered romantic.
Romantic literature of the 19th century in Russia was characterized by:1. Anti-Enlightenment orientation, which manifested itself in pre-romanticism and sentimentalism, and already reached its peak in romanticism. Socio-ideological prerequisites can be called disappointment in the results of the revolution and the fruits of society in general, protests against the routine, vulgarity and prosaic life of the bourgeoisie. The reality of stories is not subject to "reason", irrationality, the fullness of secrets and unforeseen events, and the typical world order is hostile to the personality of a person and his natural freedom.
2. The general pessimistic orientation is the ideas of "world sorrow", "cosmic pessimism" (as an example, the literary heroes of J. Byron, A. Vigny, etc.). The theme of the “terrible world lying in evil” was especially colorfully reflected in the “rock dramas” or “rock tragedies” (E. T. A. Hoffman, E. Poe).
3. Faith in the almighty spirit of man, in his call for renewal. The litkrators discovered the unknown complexity, the depth of individuality. People for them are a microcosm, a small universe. From here came the absolutization of personal principles, the philosophyindividualisms. The center of romantic works has always been a strong, exceptional person who opposes society, its moral standards and laws.
From Latin means nature - the literary currents of the Silver Age, which finally took shape in Europe and the USA.
Features:1. The desire for objective, accurate and dispassionate images of human nature and reality, which are due to the physiological environment and nature, understood in most cases as a direct material and everyday environment. This does not exclude the socio-historical factor. The main task of naturalists is to study society with the same completeness with which natural scientists study nature, artistic knowledge was likened to scientific knowledge.
2. All works of art were considered as "human documents", the main aesthetic criteria were the full value and completeness of the cognitive acts carried out in it.3. Literary critics abandoned moralizing, assuming that the depicted reality is expressive enough in itself. They thought that literature, just like the exact sciences, had no right to choose material, that there were no unworthy topics or unsuitable plots for writers. Because of this, public indifference and plotlessness often appeared in the works of that time.
Realism is the artistic and literary movement of the early 20th century. It originates in the Renaissance ("Renaissance Realism"), as well as in the Enlightenment("enlightenment realism"). For the first time, realism was noted in medieval and ancient folklore, ancient legends.
The main features of the current:
1. Artists depict the outside world in images that correspond to the essence of the phenomena of the world itself.2. In realism, literature is designated as a means of knowing the individual and the surrounding society.
3. Cognition of today comes with the help of images that are created due to the typification of the facts of reality (“typical characters in a typical setting”).
4. Realistic art is life-affirming art, even in tragic conflict resolutions. This has a philosophical basis - gnosticism, plausibility in the knowability and adequacy of the reflection of the surrounding world, which is different from romanticism.
Literary currents of the Silver Age have the following features:
- the assumption of the existence of two worlds (real and otherworldly);
- identification in symbols of reality;
- special views on natural intuition as an intermediary in the image of the world and its comprehension;
- development of sound writing as a separate poetic technique;
- comprehension of the world from the side of mystification;
- diversity of content (hints, allegory);
- searches of a religious kind ("religious free feeling");
- realism is denied.
Literature of the 19th century in Russia
The emergence of artistic trends in Russia is associated with the socio-ideologic althe atmosphere of the life of Russian people - a nationwide upsurge after the First World War. This was the beginning of not only the formation, but also the special nature of the directions of the Decembrist poets (an example is V. K. Kyuchelbeker, K. F. Ryleev, A. I. Odoevsky), whose work was animated by the ideas of civil service, imbued with the pathos of struggle and love of freedom.
A characteristic feature of romanticism in Russia
The most important aspect is the forcing of literary development in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century, which was due to the "running in" and the combination of various stages experienced in stages in other countries.
Russian romanticism absorbed pre-romantic tendencies along with the tendencies of the Enlightenment and classicism: doubts about the role of reason in the universe, the cult of nature, sensitivity, elegiac melancholy, combined with the classic orderliness of genres and styles, moderate didacticism, as well as the fight against excess metaphor for the sake of "harmonic accuracy".
Akhmatova's literary trend outwardly embellishes the language, leading at the same time to a logically justified, completely simple thought (since acmeism itself seeks to get rid of the congestion that reigned in the literature of those years).
Akhmatova's lyrical heroines are more mundane, aspiring to real life. They also think in other categories. They are women who are disillusioned with love, who think that they have discovered the secret: love assuch does not exist. But after all, quite recently, the heroines lived with rose-colored glasses in front of their eyes, like everyone else in happy ignorance. They also waited for dates, feared separation from their loved ones, sang “love songs” to him. But it all ended in one moment. Their own insight does not please them at all. In the verses, the lines “everything seems to be sick” slip through. Even complex encrypted messages become extremely clear. Every woman who has experienced the loss of love will feel this way.
The Russian poetic process, as well as the literary movement of Mayakovsky for two decades (until the 1920s) were characterized by special richness and diversity: these years were the beginning of the emergence and formation of the most modern literary groups and movements, with their history of development associated with the flourishing of the work of the most famous artists of the word. Just at the turn of these events, the creative path of the writer V. Mayakovsky unfolded.
Yesenin learned literature in difficult times for her. The imperialist war in which Russia was drawn into marked the split even more sharply. A split was outlined in the ranks of the artistic Russian intelligentsia for two centuries, with a profound revolution in 1907. Yesenin's literary current was a kind of decadent trend that broke with the progressive citizenship traditional for the literature of that time, his works were united under the heading "war to a victorious end". Also, the right SRs and Mensheviks supported the war in Russia,who had great influence in the circles of the Russian intelligentsia. Supported the war and the great poet. Meanwhile, the literary currents of the Silver Age with their foundations came to naught. The intelligentsia, and especially the Russian social democracy, were unable to strengthen the position of literature and art, to advance or delay changes.
The literary trend of acmeism was distinguished by an increased interest in cultural associations, it entered into a roll call with past literary eras. "Sorrow for a lost world culture" - this is how O. E. Mandelstam subsequently defined acmeism. Moods and motives of "exotic novels" and traditions of Lermontov's "iron poems" by Gumilyov; the image of the old Russian writing Dante and psychological novels by A. A. Akhmatova; the idea of Zenkevich's natural philosophy; the ancient world at Mandelstam; the mystical world of N. V. Gogol at Narbut, G. S. Skovoroda - and this is not the whole list of cultural layers that are affected by acmeists. Each of the acmeists at the same time had a creative originality. When N. S. Gumilyov in his poetry revealed a “strong personality”, and the works of M. A. Kuzmin concealed the aestheticism characteristic of acmeism, the work of A. A. Akhmatova and Yesenina developed more progressively, outgrew the already narrow boundaries of acmeism, in which the realistic principle and patriotic motives prevailed. Acmeist discoveries in the field of art form are still used by some modern poets.
Literary trends of the 20th century
First of all, this is an orientation towards classical, archaic andhousehold mythology; cyclic time model; mythological bricolages - works are built as collages of reminiscences and quotes from famous works.
The literary flow of that time has 10 components:
3. Illusion / reality.
4. Prioritize style over story.
5. Text within text.
6. The destruction of the plot.
7. Pragmatics, not semantics.
8. Syntax, not vocabulary.
10. Violation of the principles of coherence of the text.
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