2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
The work of Friedrich Schiller fell on the so-called era of "Storm and Onslaught" - a trend in German literature, which was characterized by the rejection of classicism and the transition to romanticism. This time spans approximately two decades: 1760-1780. It was marked by the publication of works by such famous authors as Johann Goethe, Christian Schubart and others.
Short biography of the writer
The Duchy of Württemberg, where Friedrich Schiller was born, was located on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire. The poet was born in 1759 in a family of people from the lower classes. His father was a regimental paramedic, and his mother was the daughter of a baker. However, the young man received a good education: he studied at the military academy, where he studied law and jurisprudence, and then, after transferring the school to Stuttgart, he took up medicine.
After staging his first sensational play "Robbers", the young writer was expelled from his native duchy and spent most of his life in Weimar. Friedrich Schiller was a friend of Goethe and even competed with him in writing ballads. The writer was fond of philosophy, history, poetry. He was a professor of world history at the University of Jena, under the influence of I. Kant he wrote philosophical works, studiedpublishing activities, releasing the magazines "Ory", "Almanac of Muses". The playwright died in Weimar in 1805.
The play "Robbers" and the first success
In the era under consideration, romantic moods were very popular among young people, which Friedrich Schiller also became interested in. The main ideas that briefly characterize his work boil down to the following: the pathos of freedom, criticism of the tops of society, the aristocracy, the nobility and sympathy for those who, for whatever reason, were rejected by this society.
The writer gained fame after staging his drama The Robbers in 1781. This play is notable for its naive and somewhat pompous romantic pathos, but the viewer fell in love with the sharp, dynamic plot and intensity of passions. The basis of the composition was the theme of the conflict between two brothers: Karl and Franz Moor. The insidious Franz seeks to take away his brother's estate, inheritance, as well as his beloved cousin Amalia.
Such injustice encourages Karl to become a robber, but at the same time he manages to maintain his nobility and his noble honor. The work was a great success, but brought trouble to the author: due to unauthorized absence, he was punished, and subsequently expelled from his native duchy.
The success of "Robbers" prompted the young playwright to create a number of well-known works that have become classics of world literature. In 1783 he wrote the play "Cunning and Love", "The Fiesco Conspiracy in Genoa", in 1785 - "Ode to Joy". In this series, the essay “Deceit and Love” should be singled out separately.which is called the first "petty-bourgeois tragedy", since in it for the first time the writer made the object of the artistic depiction not the problems of noble nobles, but the suffering of a simple girl of humble origin. "Ode to Joy" is considered one of the best works of the author, who proved to be not only a great prose writer, but also a brilliant poet.
Plays from the 1790s
Friedrich Schiller was fond of history, on the plots of which he wrote a number of his dramas. In 1796, he created the play "Wallenstein", dedicated to the commander of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). In 1800, he wrote the drama "Mary Stuart", in which he significantly departed from historical realities, making the conflict between two female rivals the object of an artistic depiction. The latter circumstance, however, does not detract from the literary merits of the drama.
In 1804, Friedrich Schiller wrote the play "William Tell", dedicated to the struggle of the Swiss people against Austrian domination. This work is imbued with the pathos of freedom and independence, which was so characteristic of the work of the representatives of "Storm and Onslaught". In 1805, the writer began working on the drama Demetrius, dedicated to the events of Russian history, but this play remained unfinished.
The significance of Schiller's work in art
The writer's plays had a great impact on world culture. What Friedrich Schiller wrote became the subject of Russian interestpoets V. Zhukovsky, M. Lermontov, who translated his ballads. The plays of the playwright served as the basis for the creation of wonderful operas by the leading Italian composers of the 19th century. L. Beethoven put the final part of his famous ninth symphony on Schiller's "Ode to Joy". In 1829, D. Rossini created the opera "William Tell" based on his drama; this work is considered one of the best works of the composer.
In 1835, G. Donizetti wrote the opera "Mary Stuart", which was included in the cycle of his musical compositions dedicated to the history of England in the 16th century. In 1849, D. Verdi created the opera "Louise Miller" based on the drama "Cunning and Love". The opera did not receive great popularity, but it has undoubted musical merits. So, Schiller's influence on world culture is enormous, and this explains the interest in his work today.
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Schiller's biography begins in the Duchy of Württemberg (the city of Marbach am Neckar), where he was born on November 10, 1759 in the family of an officer, regimental paramedic Johann Kaspar Schiller. The mother of the future poet was from a family of pharmacists and innkeepers. Her name was Elizabeth Dorothea Codweiss. The atmosphere of clean, neat, intelligent poverty reigned in his parents' house. The future classic dreamed of becoming a priest