2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
Modernism is a trend in art that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It also affected architecture and fine arts, but modernism manifested itself most clearly in the literature of that time. In addition to Marcel Proust, such writers as Francis Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Franz Kafka and others are prominent representatives of this trend.
The main features of modernism in literature are deep reflections and experiences. An important role is played not by the external environment and circumstances, but, on the contrary, by the inner world and personality of the characters.
Biography of Marcel Proust: origin and early years
The future writer was born in Paris on July 10, 1871. His full birth name is Valentin Louis Georges Eugene Marcel Proust.
Proust's family was quite rich and famous, so in childhood Marcel did not have to experience any hardships, the boy did not need anything, he was surrounded by the care of his parents. Father Adrian Proust had the honorary profession of a doctor (speci alty - pathologist), was talented and successful, served as a professor at the Faculty of Medicine.
About Marcel Proust's mothermodern scientists know not so much. She is known to have come from a Jewish stockbroker family.
Until the age of 9, the future writer lived happily and carefree. In 1880, the boy became seriously ill: he began to develop rapidly bronchial asthma. Later, the disease would become chronic and would be Proust's lifelong pursuer.
According to the traditions of that time, at the age of 11, Marcel entered the lyceum in Condorcet. While studying, he became friends with Jacques Bizet (the only son of Georges Bizet, the French composer who wrote the world-famous opera Carmen).
After graduating from the Lyceum, Proust entered the Sorbonne at the Faculty of Law, but studying was not interesting for him, so the future writer decided to leave him. In many ways, the decision was influenced by the fact that at that time Proust visited art salons, talked with young journalists and popular French writers. Favorite places were the salons of Mrs. Strauss, de Caiave and Madame Lemaire. All this he found exciting, unlike university classes.
First experience in literature and creativity
Unlike many other writers, Marcel Proust did not start with short stories, plays and novellas. One of the first works was the novel "Jean Santey", which Proust wrote after returning from the army, from 1895 to 1899, but never finished.
Despite this, the writer continued to improve his talent and soon published a collection of short stories “Joys anddays. After receiving negative reviews from Jean Lorrain, Proust drew criticism for a duel from which he emerged victorious.
In 1903, a misfortune happened in the family: Proust's father died, and his mother died two years later. For these reasons, as well as due to rapidly progressing asthma, during these years the writer led a reclusive lifestyle, almost did not communicate with people, and was mainly engaged in translations of works by foreign writers. His main interest was English literature.
In addition to translations, in 1907 work began on Marcel Proust's semi-autobiographical novel In Search of Lost Time, which later became the writer's most famous work. The idea came to Proust at the beginning of his literary career - similar scenes, characters and motifs were found in his drafts for "Jean Santey", but took on a clear form only many years later.
Despite the fact that Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time is currently considered the most brilliant work, the writer could not find a publisher for publication for a long time. The novel had to be rewritten and shortened.
In Search of Lost Time is a series of seven books published between 1913 and 1927, even after Proust's death from pneumonia in 1922. The novel tells about more than two thousand characters, the prototypes of which were the writer's parents, his acquaintances, as well as famous personalities of that time.
Awards and prizes
In 1919, Proust received the Prix Goncourt for the second book from the series "In Search of Lost Time" - "Under the shadow of girls inbloom." This caused a serious resonance in the literary community - many believed that the award was given undeservedly. The excitement around Proust and his work has increased the number of admirers of the writer's work several times.
Analysis and criticism of works
The main idea of Marcel Proust's books is the individuality of the human person. The writer seeks to convey the idea that consciousness, and not material objects, are the basis of everything.
For this reason, Proust considers art and creation to be the highest values in life. By nature, the writer was quite closed and unsociable, it was creativity that helped him overcome this.
Contemporaries of the writer spoke positively about Proust's style of narration, characterizing it as "somewhat obscure", "spontaneous" and "sweet". In the twenty-first century, Marcel Proust is considered a classic. His works are on the must-read list.
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