2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-07-31 00:17
When determining the architectural style of a building, a number of different factors are taken into account. The totality of various forms of architecture, the purpose of the building, the level of its artistic value, in addition, the location area, the climatic conditions of the region and many other features matter. As we can see, it is not enough, looking at the building, to say that it was built in the style of the late Renaissance or flamboyant Gothic. The architectural style must be determined based on strict criteria and references to analogues.
Scientific formulations for the classification of architectural styles were introduced relatively recently, in the 18th century, and not even an architect did it. The German archaeologist Johann Winckelmann came up with the theory of how architectural style should be defined. In accordance with his method, the determination of the ownership of a building should begin with an examination of the mechanism of style formation, continue with a comparison with existing examples, and end with a statement of identity. Difficult and confusing, although any theory has the right to exist.
BThe fact that the architectural style does not need such a deep scientific approach is supported by the fact that before the advent of Winckelmann with his theory, several styles already existed and were recognizable. Gothic cathedral from the 12th century AD you will not confuse with a building built in the Baroque style in the first half of the 18th century, and you will not mistake the masterpieces of Renaissance architecture for buildings of early classicism. Architecture, like any other genuine art, does not need German dryness and pedantry, it is original enough to exist freely and delight with its beauty.
The most liberated architectural style of all existing is modern. The fundamental features of modernity are the rejection of straight lines. Smoothing out the angularity immediately takes the building closer to naturalness, if you want, closer to nature. The most significant collection of masterpieces of Art Nouveau architecture are the houses and park and landscape structures of the architect Gaudí. His buildings fit so organically into the natural environment that they seem to be creations not of human hands, but of nature itself.
Modern style appeared at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. It was not accepted by many because of its unusualness and defiant novelty, but nevertheless it has taken its place in world architecture and will not give way to this place. And rather outrageous modernist creations of Gaudí adorn and will adorn one of the most beautiful cities in the world - Barcelona, making visiting this city a dream of all tourists. Very nice building inArt Nouveau style is located in St. Petersburg, on Nevsky Prospekt. This is the former "House of the Singer Company", currently it houses the House of the Book. The Singer House is one of the most elegant buildings in the northern capital.
Vitebsky railway station also belongs to the Art Nouveau buildings in St. Petersburg. And in Moscow, the Art Nouveau architectural style is represented by the magnificent Ryabushinsky mansion built by Shekhtel. The same talented architect built the Yaroslavsky railway station in Moscow. Also in Moscow, on Theater Square, there is the Metropol Hotel, designed by the architect Valkot - one of the most significant monuments of architecture in the Art Nouveau style.
The forerunner of modernity was the architectural style of classicism. With its severity in forms, it is a feat for the development of modernity. In the same way that baroque and rococo began to evoke associations with “whipped cream” in society and smoothly passed into classicism, a no-nonsense style, so austere classicism was supplanted by the freer architectural style of modernity. Nothing stands still, and this also applies to architecture. But before its decline, classicism was in demand by architects for almost two hundred years. In itself, this style is correct, rational and at the same time not without elegance. Classicism gravitates toward symmetry, harmony of forms, simplicity and solidity, that is, fundamentality.
All of these signs can be found in ancient architecture. From there, a minimum of decorativeness and a maximum of geometricity were taken in planning not only buildings, but entire cities. Aesthetics of classicismwas attractive to many, and new cities were built in the spirit of this architectural style.
Golden paintings by G. Klimt, in which he often depicted the Paradise tree, carry the symbolism of eternal life, love and happiness. Art Nouveau style is designed to make dreams of natural beauty, heavenly life and eternal love come true
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Smooth lines, mysterious patterns and natural shades - this is how you can characterize the art nouveau style that captivated all of Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The main idea of this direction is harmony with nature. It became so popular that it covered all creative speci alties