2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
Russian poets devoted many lines to the Moscow Kremlin. This masterpiece of medieval architecture is depicted on many canvases by famous artists. The Moscow Kremlin is an outstanding architectural ensemble in Russia. And it is about him that this article will be discussed.
Architectural ensemble is…
The word "ensemble" is of French origin. It translates as "unity, integrity, connectedness".
Architectural ensemble is a complex of residential and public buildings, as well as other structures (bridges, roads, monuments, etc.) that make up a single spatial composition. Its elements can be not only houses and buildings, but also sculptures, monuments, works of art, squares and gardens. The perception of this or that ensemble of architecture largely depends on the time of year, the level of illumination. The presence of people, as well as the intensity of traffic, also matter.
The most important part of any architectural ensemble is the surrounding landscape. The topography of the terrain plays a huge role here.also the presence of water bodies (rivers, lakes, reservoirs).
Quite often a monument or an obelisk acts as the compositional center of an architectural ensemble. Among such examples are St. Peter's Square in the Vatican or Round Square in Poltava. To honor the memory of an outstanding personality or emphasize the historical importance of an event - this is the main goal pursued by such an architectural ensemble. You can see a photo of such a complex below (this is St. Peter's Square, the Vatican).
Types of architectural ensembles
Some architectural ensembles are created immediately and comprehensively, according to a pre-prepared master plan. Others take shape over decades, gradually supplemented by new buildings and elements. By the way, the second option is much more common in the world.
There are several different types of architectural ensembles. Among them:
- ensembles of squares;
- palace and park;
- monastic ensembles.
The Moscow Kremlin is an outstanding architectural ensemble of Europe
The Kremlin in Moscow is the largest fortress in Europe among those that have been completely preserved to this day. This architectural ensemble is located in the very center of the Russian capital, it is the main public and political complex of the city, as well as a kind of sacred symbol for the whole country. It is here that the main residence of the President of the Russian Federation is located.
The architectural ensemble of the Kremlin in Moscow was built at the confluence of the Neglinnaya River into the Moscow River. Triangular in plan, the fortress occupies an area of 27.5 hectares. On one side, the Kremlin borders on Red Square, and on the other, on Alexander Garden.
In the early 90s, a large-scale reconstruction was carried out within the architectural complex: in particular, the Senate building was then restored, as well as several halls of the Grand Kremlin Palace. At the end of the 20th century, the fortress walls and towers of the ensemble were also restored.
By the way, not everyone knows that the walls of the Moscow Kremlin were not always red, as we are all used to seeing them. During the XVIII-XIX centuries, according to the surviving paintings and descriptions, they were white (until the 1880s). Today, the walls of the Kremlin are painted red from time to time.
Another interesting historical fact about the Kremlin dates back to the Great Patriotic War. So, in 1941, an order was given to finish the windows on the fortress walls so that the building looked like a residential facility.
A brief history of the architectural ensemble
Fortifications on the site of the modern Kremlin have existed in Moscow for a long time. However, in ancient times they were wooden, and therefore suffered greatly from fires. Therefore, in the XIV century, it was decided to surround the city with stone walls (made of limestone).
The most outstanding architectural ensemble in Russia was formed in its current form at the end of the 15th century. The first tower was built here in 1485. Italian architects actively participated in the construction of the complex, however, the appearance of the fortress looks very "Russian".
The huge clock placed on the Frolovskaya tower is very interesting. Throughout history, they have been changed four times. The same ones that show the time today were installed in 1852. The five-pointed ruby glass stars that adorn the Kremlin towers were installed in 1937.
The Moscow Kremlin was badly damaged during the Civil War of 1917. In particular, several towers of the complex were damaged, as well as all its temples. But the Kremlin survived the Second World War. Thanks to the competent disguise that Soviet architects managed to carry out, the ensemble was not subject to bombing.
Walls, towers and temples of the Kremlin
The architectural ensemble of the Kremlin in Moscow includes 20 towers (three of them are round in plan, the rest are square). The highest of them is Troitskaya, its height is 79 meters. All Kremlin towers are built in the same architectural style, except for the pseudo-Gothic Nikolskaya.
The Kremlin towers, as well as the fortress walls, were built at the turn of the 14th-15th centuries, and finally completed in the 17th century. The total length of all the walls of the ensemble is more than two kilometers. Their thickness ranges from 3.5-6.5 meters, and their height ranges from 5 to 19 meters. The tops of the fortress walls are decorated in the form of teeth, which in shape resemble the tails of swallows (their total number is 1045). They also preserved loopholes and loopholes, reminiscent of the main purpose of this structure.
On the territory of the Moscow Kremlin there are seven churches and one bell tower, five palace structures, as well as two famous monuments - the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell.
The Moscow Kremlin is a unique architectural ensemble of Russia, the largest fortress in all of Europe. For Russians, it is a sacred place and a symbol of the statehood of Russia. For foreign tourists, this is the number one object they want to see when they come to Russia.
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