2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Symbolism is a trend in literature, painting, music and art in general. The peculiarity of the genre is in a certain element of mystery and mystery, incomplete disclosure of the essence of the work. The meaning is conveyed to the reader, viewer or listener with the help of certain symbols (the name of the movement came from this word).
The birthplace of symbolism is France. The direction arose in the 1870s, and in the late 19th and early 20th centuries it became popular in Russia. Symbolism was used by such Russian artists as Valery Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont, Andrei Bely, Alexander Blok, Mikhail Vrubel, Alexander Skryabin and others. The poet Vyach Ivanov also made a great contribution to the development of symbolism in Russia.
Biography: early years, family, education
Vyach Ivanov (full name - Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov) was born on February 28, 1866 in Moscow. The poet's father was a surveyor (at that time this profession was calledsurveyor).
After graduating from the First Moscow Gymnasium, Vyach Ivanov entered the Faculty of History and Philology at Moscow University, but studied there for only two years. Since 1886, the future poet continued his studies in Berlin, where he also studied philology, history and philosophy.
The biography of the poet Vyach Ivanov developed in such a way that he spent almost all his youth, about 20 years, abroad. Mostly lived and traveled in Western Europe: Italy, Greece, Switzerland.
Abroad, the poet met his second wife (he married his first, Daria Dmitrievskaya, almost immediately after graduating from high school) - Lydia Zinovieva-Annibal. In 1896, a daughter was born, who was named after her mother.
In the same year, another important event took place in the life of Vyach Ivanov. He met his mentor Vladimir Solovyov, thanks to whom there was an impetus in the poet's work. The first book of nature poems was released.
A little later, in 1903, Vyach Ivanov met with Russian symbolists - Balmont, Merezhkovsky, Blok. From this moment begins a new period in the life and work of the poet.
Return to Russia
In 1905, Vyach Ivanov returned to Russia, but settled not in his native city, but in St. Petersburg. The great creators of the Silver Age gathered in his apartment every week: they discussed new ideas, shared sketches of their works and news from the literary world. Vyach Ivanov was at the peak of his fame and collaborated with a large number of popular magazines at that time.
After the death of his wife, the poet married for the third time. In 1913, Vyach Ivanov and his wife moved to Moscow, where they met the composer Scriabin.
The October Revolution was neither understood nor accepted by Ivanov. Like many other writers, artists and composers who did not approve of the idea of revolution, he tried to emigrate from Russia. Another reason for the move was his wife's tuberculosis. Despite all this, the exit was denied, and the Ivanovs had to stay at home.
In 1920, the poet's wife died, and Vyach Ivanov moved to Baku, where he taught philology.
After spending 4 years in Baku, the poet Vyach Ivanov again settled in Italy. For the last decades he lived in peace and solitude, only occasionally communicating with Merezhkovsky, Bunin and other emigrants. For the fourth time, Vyach Ivanov did not marry, and his secretary took care of the household.
The poet decided to turn to religion and joined the Catholic Church.
In Italy, Vyach Ivanov also taught: he was a lecturer in foreign languages, gave courses in Russian literature.
He died in Rome in 1949, having lived a long life. The poet was 83 years old. Buried in the Testaccio cemetery.
Features of creativity
Many of Vyach Ivanov's works have references to the distant past - Antiquity and the Middle Ages, as well as Byzantium - Ivanov was one of the few writers who turned to the art of this state when creating his works. It is in theseepochs, the poet found for himself what he called "genuine symbolism."
Vyach Ivanov's poems raise high eternal themes that have always worried poets and their readers: death and rebirth, despair and hope. The poems are not dynamic, but rather give the impression of something static, majestic and heavy. You can see that the poet uses almost no verbs, which creates this effect of immobility.
Nature was described and sung by many writers, but even this Vyach Ivanov does in his own way. In his works, he does not mention trees, grasses, or water bodies, but rather the inanimate part of the surrounding world - piles of scattered stones, crystals sparkling in the sun and molten metals.
Despite this aspect, the work of Vyach Ivanov as a whole is surprisingly holistic and harmonious, and the main themes are triumph and love, which is able to overcome death. The poet often uses Greek words - this is the tradition of the ancient Church Slavonic language, which emphasizes the majesty and sophistication of the poems.
Dmitry Mirsky, a Russian literary critic and critic, compares Vyach Ivanov's poems with "rich Byzantine vestments". There is a huge influence of past times, which makes the poems "filled with self-awareness." According to the critic, the poet carefully thought out every word. All this makes the work of Vyach Ivanov truly unique and important for Russian literature.
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