2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
The problem of upbringing and education of the eighteenth century is posed in the main work of Denis Fonvizin, and the behavior of the characters and their characteristics contribute to the development of the conflict. "Undergrowth" is a brilliant comedy about pseudo-intellectuals who take lessons from the leading teachers of the state, but themselves do not learn anything at all. So was the main character, Mitrofan.
Summary. "Undergrowth" as the best educational comedy
The Prostakov family is going to marry their only son Mitrofan to the clever and beautiful Sophia. Skotinin also has views of the bride, who, after the celebration, wants to take possession of the living creatures of the village - pigs, to which he is a great hunter. However, Sophia does not have feelings for any of the suitors and is waiting for the third - the well-mannered and educated young man Milon. Shortly before the wedding, the girl's uncle, Starodum, announces a large inheritance. The Prostakovs, having heard about this, want to speed upmatchmaking, and before that they teach their son to read and write. From this moment events begin. How is the problem of upbringing and education solved in the comedy "Undergrowth"?
Mitrofan is a minor young man who has not yet served in the public service and does not have a sharp mind. In the classroom, he is rude to teachers and makes fun of them, does not respect his mother at all and declares: “I don’t want to study, but I want to get married!”. Fortunately, Starodum and Milon appear in the village in time, who are going to take Sophia away from the Prostakovs. The mother of the family does not cease to insist on her own and boasts of the imaginary achievements of her son. Starodum is convinced that Mitrofan must first of all be given a good education and upbringing: the undergrowth speaks illiterately and cannot answer simple questions. Sophia's marriage with him will not take place, since the girl gives her consent to Milon. The Prostakovs remain in their village, and Starodum leaves with the newly-made bride and groom.
The problem of education in the society of the 18th century on the example of the Prostakov family
The Age of Enlightenment in Russia and throughout the world is marked by the development of scientific and philosophical thought. Salons and schools were opened, as having a good education was considered fashionable, especially among the nobility. Enlightenment did not end with the knowledge of foreign languages and the ability to behave in society: a person must be able to read, write and count. The problem of upbringing and education in the comedy "Undergrowth" is posed in a different way:older people, such as Mrs. Prostakova, believe that training is not necessary at all. Mitrofan will not need arithmetic in his life: "There is money - we will calculate well even without Pafnutich." Nevertheless, Prostakova makes her son study so that he looks worthy in the eyes of the public.
Images of positive and negative characters
"Undergrowth" is a classic comedy in which all unities are observed, including the presence of speaking names. It is easy for the reader to guess that Prostakova, Skotinin and Vralman are negative characters: the first is as simple as three kopecks, the second is notable for his passion for cattle, the third lied so that he himself forgot about his origin; on the example of another negative character, Mitrofanushka, the author raises the actual problem of upbringing and education.
In the comedy "Undergrowth" Starodum, Pravdin and Milon are the carriers of virtue. They want to rescue Sophia from the village of Prostakov, and they succeed. These people were given the best education and they talk about "ignoramuses without a soul", such as Mitrofan. The speech of the goodies is sublime, which is why readers still quote them.
Image of Mitrofan
Comedy "Undergrowth" becomes interesting due to the atypical character of the protagonist. Mrs. Prostakova does not have a soul in her only son. She boasts of his good education, although he never learned to read and write and other sciences. Fonvizin wrote the best classic comedy, depictingan enlightenment conflict that the reader can delve into by reading the full content.
Undergrowth Mitrofanushka is portrayed as narrow-minded from the first pages of the comedy. The sixteen-year-old boy has not yet been in the public service and is reluctant to study. He is a collective image of all "mama's sons" who lead a parasitic lifestyle, living under the care of their parents and not responding kindly to their care and affection. Ignorance and lack of culture reign in the family where Mitrofan grew up.
Images of teachers and their characteristics
Mrs. Prostakova hires three teachers for her son: Tsyfirkin, Kuteikin and Vralman. The first is the most worthy and honest. Pafnutich Tsyfirkin responsibly treats the issue of education and tries with all his might to teach Undergrowth arithmetic, but is harassed by Prostakova and Vralman. At the end of the comedy, he refuses to pay for his work, because, as he himself admits, he failed to teach Mitrofan his science.
The half-educated seminarian Kuteikin boasts that he comes from scientists, but he also fails to find the right approach to the Undergrowth. For four years of teaching grammar, Mitrofan "does not understand a new line." In the final, Kuteikin demands payment not only for teaching hours, but also for worn shoes.
Vralman managed to achieve favor with the Prostakovs with flattering speeches. The false teacher claims that it is enough for Mitrofan to know how to behave in society, and arithmetic and grammar will not do him any good. Soon Starodumexposes Vralman: he recognizes in him his retired coachman, who began to engage in a new craft. The problem of upbringing and education in the comedy "Undergrowth" is solved in the finale: they decide to send Mitrofan to the army, since the young man is deaf to science and elementary etiquette.
The meaning of the last scenes
The title of the comedy reveals the essence of Mitrofan, his negative characteristic. The minor is not only deaf to the questions of education, but also shows elementary disrespect for the older generation. He shocks his mother, who doted on him and did all the best for him. People like Mrs. Prostakova are said to have fallen in love with their children. “Yes, get rid of it, mother,” Mitrofanushka tells her, after which the poor woman faints, and Starodum concludes: “Here are worthy fruits of evil-mindedness.” In the finale, the author laid a deep meaning: people who at first were deaf to the sciences very rarely acquire a desire to learn after many years, therefore they continue to remain ignoramuses. Ignorance gives rise to other negative human qualities: stinginess, rudeness, cruelty.
At the end of the play, the bearers of virtue - Sophia, Milon, Pravdin and Starodum - leave the Prostakov village. "The ignorant without a soul" is left to choose the path of their development: their worldview must change, or they will remain the same soulless.
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