2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Hans Holbein Sr. (≈1465-1524) headed the art workshop. His brother worked there, and later his two sons. A special, outstanding role in the art of the Northern Renaissance was played by his youngest son, the full namesake of his father - Hans Holbein (1497-1543).
In we althy Augsburg
In the old Bavarian Augsburg, where Hans Holbein (father) was born, he kept a workshop and was part of the craftsmen's workshop, since painting was not considered art in those days. It has been like this since ancient times, when arithmetic was considered an art. The ancient Greeks did not have the word "mathematics", and painting was only a craft. Workshop Hans became a family. Things flourished, there were enough orders for himself, and for his brother Sigmund, and for his assistant Leonard. Augsburg at the turn of the century was a huge city. Trade developed in it, workshops that made weapons and jewelry grew. The patrons of the painters were we althy families. In the 16th century, the merchants of this city were among the we althiest in Europe. Emperor Maximilian I often came to the city. It was he and his retinue who brought herenew knowledge about the artists of the Italian Renaissance, for example. It was a time when medieval gothic gave way to a fresh look at the world.
In the workshop
Hans Holbein absorbed new aesthetics and managed to organically express the ideals of the Renaissance. His fame began to spread throughout southern Germany. First, he is invited to work in Ulm himself, then in Frankfurt am Main. With his sons Ambrosius (1494-1519) and Hans, he makes paintings in Lucerne. This is a lot of work that is being done both inside the building and outside. The images contain both genre scenes and hunting. Later, Hans Holbein retired from active work and settled in Isenheim, where he later died. In Augsburg, the Holbein house, which was destroyed during the war years, was restored, and in the Gallery of Old Masters and the cathedral there are works by Hans Holbein. His paintings are the pride of the city.
The life of Hans Holbein-son
After working with his father and brother, Hans moved to Switzerland in 1515. Settled in Basel for ten years. Here he meets Erasmus of Rotterdam, illustrates his "Praise of Stupidity", creates his portrait. His patron is Burgomaster Meyer, for whom he will paint the Meyer Madonna, one of his masterpieces of this period, before he leaves Germany forever.
In the upper central part, the Virgin Mary holds the baby Jesus under the cover of the scallop of the shell. It is believed that a lover named Magdalena Offenburg posed for him. Below under the protection of the cloak of the Blessed Virginthe whole Meyer family settled down on either side of it. It was believed that thanks to her intercession one could receive the mercy of the Heavenly Father. The scallop of the shell symbolizes divine space and femininity. The golden crown on the head of the Virgin means the independence of her power. On the left is Meyer himself with his two sons. In the foreground in a white dress is Meyer's daughter Anna. Then - his second wife, Dorothea, and, finally, in profile is shown the first, already deceased wife of Meyer - Magdalena. So this is a religious portrait with serious connotations. It is not known what Hans Holbein was thinking about when he left Basel. His biography in these years consisted of moving. Where did he go?
Hans Holbein Jr in England
The artist leaves for England for two years, where he is warmly received, then returns to Basel, finishes painting the town hall with scenes from the Old Testament, and in 1532 permanently moves to the island. Here he reveals his gift as a portrait painter to the fullest. Now before us will be his work, which created his unfading glory. The accuracy of the characteristics, the brightness of the images - that's what Hans Holbein creates. The works did not immediately find followers, but it was they who influenced the development of portraiture in Britain.
Hans Holbein Jr painted portraits of French ambassadors the year Princess Elizabeth was born. This painting is both a double portrait and a still life of several objects, which have caused much discussion.
Men dressed in variousclothes, on the right Jean de Denteville - in a secular one, on the left Bishop Georges de Selve - in an official one. This shows the conflict between the secular and religious authorities, between the ruling lords and the Church. The principle of discord between scientists (Martin Luther's hymns) and the Catholic clergy is indicated by a lute with a broken string. Between the ambassadors is an open Lutheran ps alter as a symbol of religious knowledge. At the same time, he unites them through the Mother of God. At the bottom of the painting on the floor in the center is a skull in a long distorted form. It is not clear why Holbein suggests remembering death, but it is possible that the artist is composing a three-level picture. On the top shelf there is an astrolabe, a quadrant, a multifaceted sundial and other objects of the heavenly world, on the bottom - the earthly world, as evidenced by books and a lute, and, finally, on the floor, a reminder of death in the form of an oblique cut. This is also evidenced by the crucifix in the upper left corner, and the medallion of Jean de Denteville. So the painter turns a direct, simple view of life into a phantasmagoric vision.
Lost Portrait of the King
In 1536, Holbein became the court painter of King Henry. And in 1536-1537 he created his portrait. The original has not been preserved, it burned down in a fire in 1698, and is known to us only from numerous copies.
At this time, Heinrich was married to the resigned Jane Seymour. The portrait of Heinrich's humble third wife has survived, as has the portrait of the young Prince Edward, the long-awaited heir, at a tender age.
Portrait of Henry VIII, late copy
As mentioned, the portraits of Henry VIII burned down. They were intended to decorate Whitehall. But copies remain. In addition to the king himself, his wife Jane Seymour and his parents, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York were also depicted.
These were frescoes completed by 1537 to celebrate the birth of a beloved son. For us, only the cardboard remained in the original, on which Henry VIII and his father, Henry VII are drawn.
Henry VIII (copy) depicted in full growth without sword, crown and scepter.
The greatness of the king is conveyed by the pose. He proudly and aggressively stands directly in front of the viewer, legs apart, hands in the position of a fighter. In one hand he holds a glove, the other is located next to a richly decorated dagger hanging from his belt. He is wearing a lot of jewelry, including several large rings and a couple of necklaces. Clothing with wide padded shoulders enhances the impression of masculine power emanating from the king. Holbein deliberately distorts the figure of Henry VIII to make him more imposing. In the portrait, the king is young and he althy, although in reality he is already seriously suffering from a wound received during an unsuccessful tournament. Henry VIII liked this portrait so much that he ordered copies of it to be made as gifts for ambassadors and nobles.
The only surviving portrait by Holbein
This portrait is not in England, but in the Thyssen Museum-Bornemis in Madrid, where the king is depicted waist-deep facing the viewer in three-quarters. For many years this painting belonged to the Spencer family, but financial problems forced the 7th Earl Spencer to part with it.
This is an example of Holbein's typical monumental style. The frontally deployed shoulders of the royal person, the position of his hands, decorated with rings, a massive chain, a majestic posture immediately show that an outstanding strong personality is in front of the viewer. The imperious heavy face of the monarch is completely calm. His handsome features did not disfigure either wrinkles or excessive fullness. His eyes are narrowed in disbelief, but he doesn't look closely at anyone. There is no hint of a smile on his face. This is a tough person who is used to solving everything on his own, cracking down on real and imaginary oppositionists.
Holbein died during the plague in London. It was at the height of his talent and skill. The painter is only 46 years old.
Impressionism is a trend in art (mainly in painting), which originated in France at the end of the 19th century. Representatives of this trend sought to create completely new ways of conveying the surrounding reality. The world in the paintings of the Impressionists is mobile, changeable, elusive. One of the main representatives of this trend in painting is the German artist Max Liebermann. Several dozen paintings came out from under his brush
Franz Marc became a representative of one of the branches of expressionism. The German artist gave the world great works that now convey the dreamy, disturbing and eerie images of the First World War
Today we will tell you who German Sadulaev is. The writer's books, as well as his biography are given below. He was born in 1973, February 18. We are talking about a Russian writer and publicist
Richard Strauss is a composer whose operas and musical poems captivated with emotional revelation. Expressionism (expression) of his works is a sharp reaction to the society of that time. A striking example of late romanticism was the symphonies "Alpine", "Tricks of Ulenspiegel", "Zarathustra", "Salome" and "Don Juan"
Peter Stein is a director known for his classical direction in theatrical art, embellished with notes of bold avant-garde and his own interpretations. Under his strict guidance, dozens of complex magnificent performances were created, staged in various large cities around the world, including Russia