2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
The artistic style in the art of Europe in the 17th - 19th centuries, the most important feature of which was a deep appeal to ancient art as an ideal, a standard, is classicism. In painting, as well as in sculpture, architecture and other types of creativity, the traditions of the Renaissance continued - faith in the power of the human mind, admiration for the ideals of proportion and harmony of the ancient world.
Trends of classicism appeared in Italy at the end of the 16th century. The pan-European style began to take shape in the bosom of the artistic culture of France. The aesthetic value of this era has only timeless, enduring. Great importance was attached to the educational and social function of art. Therefore, classicism in painting puts forward the latest ethical standards, which forms the images of its heroes: submission to the common personal, passions - to reason, duty, the supreme interests of the public, the laws of the universe, resistance to the vicissitudes of life and the cruelty of fate. Orientation to the eternalimages, on a reasonable basis, determined the regulation of artistic laws, the normative requirements of classical aesthetics, the strict hierarchy of existing genres - from “low” (portrait, landscape, still life) to “high” (mythological, historical, religious). Each genre put forward meaningful strict boundaries and formal clear signs.
The first classicism in painting was introduced by the Frenchman N. Poussin, he is its founder. The artist's paintings - "The Death of Germanicus", "Rinaldo and Armida", "The Arcadian Shepherds", "The Finding of Moses", etc. All of them are marked by harmonious rhythmic color and structure, sublimity of ethical and philosophical content.
Classicism in Russian painting was expressed by the assertion of the beauty of the individual, unique, unusual. The highest achievement of this era in painting is not a historical theme, but a portrait (A. Antropov, A. Agrunov, F. Rokotov, D. Levitsky, V. Borovikovsky, O. Kiprensky). Russian classicism in the painting of the 19th century occupies a place of honor, since it has its own discoveries and features. O. Kiprensky, for example, discovered not only new human qualities, but also the newest possibilities of painting. All his portraits are different: each has its own original pictorial structure. Some are built on the picturesque contrast of shadow and light. In others, a subtle gradation of similar, close colors appears.
Russian classicism in painting is necessarily associated with Bryullov's priceless canvases. They are distinguished by an alloy of academic classicism and romanticism, novelty of plots,theatrical effect of plasticity and lighting, the complexity of the composition. A. Ivanov managed to overcome many patterns inherent in academic technique and gave his works the character of sacrificial judgments to ideas.
Classicism in Russian painting was also promoted by such famous artists: I. Repin, I. Surikov, V. Serov, I. Shishkin, A. Savrasov, I. Levitan. All of them individually did a lot for the art of their country, and together they did a lot for the culture of the whole world.
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