2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
A distinctive feature of hoodlit, which makes this art direction related to cinema and theater, is a specific reproduction of the processes occurring in time. The representative of those is the life of a person, as well as all the experiences that are characteristic of a person. In the artistic space there is a place for the thoughts of a person and his intentions. Hoodlit is dedicated to a person's life, including events that take place at the behest of the hero and third-party characters. No less attention paid to intentions.
For a long time
About artistic space and time, about the connection between the place and the meaning of the work, people have been thinking since ancient times. It is known, in particular, that Aristotle thought about how to more accurately connect these categories. Over time, ideas about them expanded, prominent figures in cultural studies, philosophy, and literature more than once de alt with the designated issue. In particular, a great contribution was made by Likhachev. No less significant are the works of Bakhtin, who also considered the designated categories, trying to expand and deepen the understanding of them. Dueworks of these authors today time, spatial characteristics are perceived as key categories in the field of literary criticism. Any artistic work always includes a reflection of the real flow of time and a person's ideas about real space. A complex system of relations of designated categories is formed within creation.
Artistic time and space are integral parts of the character of the image as a whole. Thanks to these categories, a holistic perception of the reality described in the work is possible. In addition, using the possibilities of these categories, the author receives tools for organizing the composition of creation. Both time and place are symbols. The key signs associated with space are a house associated with a certain closed territory, space, understood as something open, and expressing the border of the door, windows, thresholds. It is common for modern works to include various ports (sea, air, land) as symbols in the work. They symbolize a meeting that turns the course of the plot.
To better understand the nuances of artistic space in literature, it is worth turning to the classic works of the most famous authors. Critics traditionally talk about the possibility of forming volumetric and dotted artistic space. The art space that Dostoevsky described in his novels is very clear. It is most like a stage area. In his creations, time is a category that is rapidly rushing forward. For comparison,if you turn to Chekhov's works, you can see that time has actually frozen in them.
Ukhtomsky, analyzing the artistic space in literature, the passage of time in various well-known works, formulated a new term - "chronotope". It consists of two Greek words denoting place, time. It was decided to use this term to designate the space-time system. Later, Bakhtin published a work that saw the light of day under the title Forms of Time and Chronotope. Here attention is focused on the chronotope in relation to various works. The scientist analyzed the works of his contemporaries, novels that have come down from earlier times, including works created in the ancient period. It was possible to clearly prove that the chronotope varies greatly from case to case, from author to author. Although, if you wish, you can identify certain similarities between the creations of different authors of the same era, more often the only determining factor is the idea of the author.
Chronotope: about the term
Bakhtin, studying artistic time and space in literature, came to the conclusion that it is impossible to separate these two categories. They are characterized by unity, synthesis. A chronotope is a mutually important connection that connects the relationship of place and time. This applies only to relationships mastered within the framework of a work of art. Bakhtin proposed to understand the chronotope as a typical quality, a property characteristic of a particular work. This category is proposed to be regarded as important, fundamentally significant for the plot. Spatial structure is formedoppositions of the upper and lower, earth and sky, the kingdom of people and the underworld. Equally important are the opposites of open and enclosed space, as well as left and right. The time structure is determined by the opposites of light and dark, different seasons, periods of the day.
By analyzing artistic time and space in literature, Bakhtin formulated the inherent functionality of the chronotope. It is determined that this category is needed in order to formulate the place of the work in relation to what is happening in the real world. The chronotope helps to organize the space within the creation. Through this category, the author introduces the viewer into the work. Using the chronotope, you can correlate the place, time, even if they differ and do not correspond to each other in real time. The same tool is used to formulate an associative chain in the reader's mind. This chain acts as the basis for the connection between creation and the idea of the real world. The latter is significantly expanded by applying the category of chronotope.
Time, space of artistic culture can be concretized, but can also be abstract. If the temporal category is abstract, then the spatial category automatically becomes the same. This mutual connection also works in the opposite direction.
Bakhtin, who analyzed the phenomenon of the artistic space of a work, identified several particular chronotopes. For example, associated with the image of the road. His main motive isunpredictable meeting. If such a motive is observed in the text of the work, this usually becomes the moment of the action. Such a chronotope is designated as an open location. But a non-random meeting occurs if the temporal-spatial connection is observed in the context of a private salon. By its nature, such a zone is closed (similar to the house mentioned earlier).
A rather characteristic literary image is a castle. True, it is found mostly in foreign books. Such an object is not inherent in classical Russian works. A similar chronotope in Bakhtin's description is a symbol indicating that history, the past of the clan dominates within the events of the work. This chronotope is a space with strict boundaries, frames, walls. Another particular chronotope is the threshold. He speaks of a crisis, points to a turning point, is not accompanied by a biography, is reflective of a specific moment.
Sometimes the space and time of a work of art can be characterized by a rather curious chronotope – a provincial settlement. This image characterizes a time not filled with events, a limited location. The chronotope is associated with the concept of self-sufficiency. The object drawn in the work lives its own life, not connected with external objects. Although the current time is not sacred, it is characterized by a pronounced cyclicity.
Chronotopes: large and not only
Analyzing the features of the artistic space, one can see the dominance of the inversion law. In this case, one speaks of an idyllic chronotope. This is enougha major reciprocal relationship of time and location. Sometimes it is called folklore.
Analysis of modern works shows certain tendencies inherent in the hoodlit of the authorship of our contemporaries. The desire for symbolism, as well as a tendency to mythologisation, are considered classic. Typical features are doubling, communication to memories. It is noticeable that more and more often authors create works of art in which time is one of the heroes of what is happening, and for some it is the main character. Modern creations are characterized by an increase in the relevance of installation. At the same time, time and location are perceived by the authors as the most important world coordinates. Without which it is impossible to build your work.
Relevance: why is connection so important?
It is impossible to create a work in such a way that it would be in a vacuum both in terms of locations and time reference. Any creation is always an object that has some temporal features and signs of a certain spatial position. At the same time, it is necessary to realize, analyzing a specific hoodlit, what are the features of artistic time and space, how they differ from simple abstraction. It is important to note that these categories are not physical. However, many authors rightly point out that even physicists today cannot unambiguously and clearly focus what time and place are. For art, these categories act as an exceptionally specific phenomenon, a coordinate system. For the first time about the importance of these phenomena for art as a sphereLessing spoke up. Over the next couple of centuries, a lot of theorists appeared who carefully proved that time, location for hoodlit is not just an important component, but in many cases it determines the entire creation.
The author chooses the forms of artistic space for a reason. They are one of the most important aspects of the formation of the atmosphere of the work, the disclosure of the plot. This is especially evident when analyzing, for example, Crimes and Punishments. The space in which the characters are forced to live strikes the reader with its narrowness. All the streets described in the work are narrow, all the rooms are very small. The protagonist lives in a room that looks more like a coffin than human habitation. All these features and locations were not chosen by the author by chance. A creative person is interested in those who find themselves in an impasse in their lives. The author uses every means available to him to emphasize again and again how hopeless the situation described is. In conclusion, when the hero finally gains faith, feels love, attention to this is further accentuated by the disclosure of the space in which events unfold.
Times and manners
In different eras, types of artistic space had different meanings. Each new era is characterized by its unique features of the relationship between location and time. The next period in the development of art is characterized by its own nuances of coordinate systems. There are some general laws of development that make it possible to assess howdirection is moving art. Until the 18th century, aesthetics basically denied the author the right to interfere with the structure of creation in the category of time. The author had no right to start with the death of a character, gradually unwinding events in the opposite direction and returning to his birth. At that time, the story had to be real. It was strictly forbidden to disrupt the course of actions of one character by including blocks dedicated to another hero. This caused time inconsistencies, a trait quite typical of older books.
An analysis of the artistic space in old works shows that there were a lot of stories dedicated to the same hero. Some ended with his successful return from adventures, the next began with pictures of the suffering of loved ones due to the absence of a character. A typical example is Homer's Odyssey. In the 18th century, the situation changed dramatically. From this moment on, the author has the opportunity to model the creation at will. The requirement to be assimilated to life logic disappears. From this point on, you can see additional insertions, digressions and inconsistencies in the books. Nowadays, the author has the right to form a composition, arranging individual elements as he sees fit. The artist has complete freedom.
Labels, understanding, development of terminology
"He's on the doorstep…"… It's worth reading this wording, and it immediately becomes clear: the hero is going to have something important, big, something that is probably strongwill change his life. Threshold is one of the previously mentioned chronotopes. According to some researchers of the artistic space, this chronotope is the most common in culture. If the author includes it in his work, thereby he makes the meaning of the story much deeper. But let us turn to the chronotopes. Traditionally, it is customary to perceive this category as universal. It is used to designate a model that includes temporal features and a location category. The author of the term, however, proposed to understand this phenomenon as a stable pattern that is observed in different creations.
Chronotope is not the only model format. There are also more general ones, based on the characteristics of a certain culture. Such models are considered to be associated with history. They replace each other. A person is such that an outdated model does not disappear, it still excites the reader, excites him - which means that it is the basis for creating a work of art. Variations of models in different cultures are innumerable. Several are considered basic, and the simplest is the zero countdown of time and place. This is a fixed model. Both time and location are meaningless for such a construction. There are no differences between different places, the same events always happen. This model is considered the most archaic, although it does not lose its relevance in our time. It underlies ideas about the heavenly and underworld kingdoms, and is often activated when trying to imagine what happens after death. This model is used to formulate the "golden age". It is very clearly expressed in the conclusion of the novel The Master and Margarita.
Everything in a circle
Often Gogol's artistic space is built on a circular model. It is also called cyclic. This form is considered one of the most widespread. As an excellent external reinforcement of the design, the cycles of nature are constantly changing around us. The key feature of such a model is the idea that sooner or later everything will return to the starting point, to a stable position. Time, place - all this is permissible in such a model, however, such categories are conditional, since the hero sooner or later comes to the starting point, no changes will occur.
Not only the artistic space of The Inspector General and other works of Gogol is built according to the cyclic model. There are also older examples that are considered by critics to be particularly revealing. For example, Homer's Odyssey. The protagonist spends many years traveling and experiencing a huge number of incredible adventures. Returning to his native land, he meets his wife; she is still beautiful and loves him as much as on the day she sailed. Some critics consider this an adventurous time that exists only around the main character. At the same time, the temporary category does not change anything either in the heroes or in the connections between them.
This is interesting
The artistic space built according to the cyclic view is part of the archaic model. The projections of such a system are quite characteristic of the culture of our days. They can be seen in the works of Yesenin. This is especially noticeable in the workscreated by the great poet in his mature years. He turned to the theme of the cycle of life and turned it into a central one for his work. Even his most famous lines, written just before his death, are characterized by such a pattern and are a reference to biblical materials, also built on the idea of a circle.
But realism basically assumes a linear model. At the same time, the space is as wide and open as possible. For such works, an excellent image is an arrow aimed right at the target. It is released by the past, flies into the future. This model is the key to human consciousness of our time. It dominates most of the art works created in the last few centuries. Classical examples are the texts of Tolstoy. Any event within the framework of such a model becomes unique, occurs only once, since changes are characteristic of a person. The linear model is the forerunner of psychologism, based on the idea of change, which is not allowed in cyclic and zero systems. The linear model is combined with historicism as a creative principle. It assumes to understand a person as a product of a certain era, does not consider an abstract person outside of time.
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