2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
Eduard Bagritsky (his real name is Dzyuban (Dzyubin)) is a Russian poet, playwright and translator. He was born in Odessa. His family was Jewish, bourgeois. It had strong religious traditions. Eduard Bagritsky, whose photo you will find in this article, studied in 1905-10 at the Odessa School of St. Paul. After that, he continued his education in 1910-12, located on Khersonskaya Street (Odessa), a real school named after. Zhukovsky. As a designer, Eduard participated in the publication of a magazine called "Days of Our Life". Then, in 1913-15, the future poet studied at a land surveying school, but he never worked by profession.
Eduard Bagritsky began publishing poetry in 1915. And not under his own name. He immediately took the pseudonym Bagritsky. In addition, he was also known under a female mask, signing his compositions "Nina Voskresenskaya". His works were first published in Odessa literary almanacs. Eduard soon became one of the most prominent figures among the young writers of Odessa, who later became major writers (YuriOlesha, Valentin Kataev, Ilya Ilf, Semyon Kirsanov, Lev Slavin, Vera Inber).
Joining the Red Army, work in Odessa
During the Civil War (in 1918) he volunteered for the Red Army. Eduard worked in a special partisan detachment. All-Russian Central Executive Committee, in the political department. He wrote propaganda poems. After the war, Edward worked in Odessa. Here he began to collaborate as an artist and poet in YugROSTA together with V. Narbut, Yu. Olesha, V. Kataev, S. Bondarin. Eduard Bagritsky published in various Odessa newspapers, as well as humorous magazines. He was known under the pseudonyms "Rabkor Gortsev", "Nina Voskresenskaya" and "Someone Vasya".
Moving to Moscow, the appearance of the first collections of poems
Bagritsky came to Moscow in 1925. He became a member of "Pass", a well-known literary group. A year later, Edward decided to join the constructivists.
The first collection of his poems was published in 1928 ("Southwest"). "Southwest" was published in 1928. Most of the poems from this collection were written and published for the first time in Odessa: "Autumn", "Watermelon", "Til Ulenspiegel". This book includes Bagritsky's famous poem "The Thought about Opanas", as well as his most famous poem "Smugglers". The next collection, Winners, was published in 1932. At the same time, the book "The Last Night" was also published. The poet joined the RAPP in 1930. Helived in Moscow, in the "House of Writers' Cooperative" at Kamergersky lane, house 2.
Thought about Opasan
In his poem "The Thought about Opanas" the tragic confrontation of Opanas, a village boy from Ukraine, who dreams of a quiet peasant life in his homeland, is shown; and Iosif Kogan, a Jewish commissar who upheld the "higher" truth and value of the world revolution. It should be noted, however, that already after the death of Edward, during the period of the "struggle against cosmopolitanism", this poem was declared a "Zionist work" in an article dated July 30, 1949, published in the Literary Gazette. The "Duma about Opanas" was also characterized as a slander against the Ukrainian people.
Personal qualities of a poet
Eduard Bagritsky was very erudite. There were even legends about it. The phenomenal memory of the poet kept many poetic lines. His wit knew no bounds, and kindness warmed more than one poet in the 1920s and 1930s. Bagritsky was one of the first to note the talent of the young L. Oshanin, Ya. Smelyakov, Dm. Kedrin, A. Tvardovsky. Aspiring poets literally rushed to him with a request to listen and evaluate their works.
Eduard Bagritsky was not only an excellent poet. He can also be called a brilliant translator of W alter Scott and Thomas Good, Nazim Hikmet and Joe Hill, Vladimir Sosyura and Mikola Bazhan, Robert Burns.
Reflection in the work of attitudes towards communism
Bagritsky is a master,who was gifted with a rare impressionability. He accepted the revolution. The romantic poetry of Bagritsky glorified the construction of communism. At the same time, Edward painfully tried to justify in his own eyes the cruelty of the ideology of the revolutionaries, as well as the advent of totalitarianism. In 1929 he wrote the poem "TVS". In it, the late Felix Dzerzhinsky appeared to the desperate and sick author, who remarked about the coming century that if he says "lie", you should do it. And if it is said to kill, then this must be done.
Last years of life, Bagritsky's funeral
Bagritsky's asthma worsened from the beginning of 1930. He suffered from this disease since childhood. In 1934, on February 16, he died in Moscow, suffering from pneumonia for the fourth time. The poet was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery. A squadron of young cavalry followed his coffin with swords drawn.
The poem "February", published after the death of Eduard Bagritsky, still causes a lot of controversy. This, one might say, is the confession of a Jewish youth who was a participant in the revolution. Anti-Semitic publicists repeatedly wrote that the hero of the poem, raping a prostitute, who was his gymnasium love, in her face commits violence against all of Russia, thereby avenging the shame of his "homeless ancestors." However, the usually cited version of the poem is about a third of its part. This work is about a Jewish high school student who became a man after going through the firstworld war and revolution. The gang arrested by the protagonist also consists of at least two-thirds of the Jews. This is evidenced by the names of its participants - Petka Kambala, Semka Rabinovich and Monya Brilliantshchik.
The fate of the wife and son of Eduard Bagritsky
Eduard Bagritsky married in 1920. His personal life is limited to one marriage. Edward lived with Lydia Gustavovna Suok until his death. The poet's widow was repressed in 1937. She returned from prison only in 1956. Vsevolod, son of Eduard, died in 1942 at the front.
This is just basic information about such an interesting poet as Eduard Bagritsky. The biography summarized in this article gives only a general idea of him. The rest will be told by his poems, which we recommend referring to.
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