2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Artistic painting as a kind of arts and crafts continues the traditions of folk art. This is not just a certain visual range, its essence is much more, because it seems to soar out of time, uniting the creativity of dozens of generations of masters. It is organically connected with the Motherland - at the place of its origin in the community of peasants (cattle breeders, farmers, hunters).
The view of art historians on art painting
Artistic painting is applied to products from easily obtained traditional natural "democratic" materials: natural fabrics, wood, clay, leather, stone, bone.
Until the 17th century, its sprouts existed within individual subsistence farms. Skills were passed down by masters along the family line, from generation to generation. Specific artistic techniques were honed, allowing for the optimal presentation of products. The most expressive and meaningful ways of applying the ornament were chosen. Painting in architecture decorated the ceiling, walls, vaults, beams and pillars, and in everyday life - utensils, objects of labor.
During the period from the 17th to the 18th centuries, artistic painting in Russia is already transforming into a craft that creates goods for the market. It is not individual masters who begin to engage in it, but individual localities, villages. In the 19th century, an artel organization of the art of painting took place. For example, the Fedoskino miniature masters organized themselves in this way after the ruin of private owners in 1903 and preserved their art. In 1876, the systematization of various types of painting began by Professor Isaev A. A. in the two-volume monograph "Crafts of the Moscow province".
In the 1920s-1930s of Soviet power, the emphasis was placed on the creation of cooperative trade artels where historically there were centers of folk art developing original types of painting. For example, Khokhloma painting in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The strategy for the development of painting, as well as other types of arts and crafts, is comprehended and outlined by the scientist and teacher Vasily Sergeevich Voronov in the monograph "On Peasant Art".
Currently, art painting enterprises are actively developing types of painting in order to meet demand both in the Russian market and abroad. Painted products, while maintaining their everyday function, are increasingly acquiring features of aesthetic and artistic value. For their production, modern machines and special equipment are used - for roughing and preparatory work. The main creative work, as well as several centuries ago, is done by hand by master artists.
Painting as art
It is impossible not to note that the national painting changes the very image of the product. It becomes more expressive at the level of colors, rhythm of lines and proportionality. Industrial "soulless" goods become warm and alive through the efforts of artists. The latter is achieved by applying an ornament and elements of fine art (graphics and painting). Various types of painting create a special positive emotional background, consonant with the area where the fishery exists.
Formally speaking, art painting is done by applying paints to a certain surface with a brush. An important point should be noted: unlike painting, which models an integral space, painting is always fragmentary.
Specialists-designers often talk about the phenomenon of Russian painting: it universally harmonizes with almost any style: minimalism, modern, country. Techniques created by ancient masters were perfected by many generations of masters in certain areas, creating a special stylistic expression. Fortunately, in Russia of the 21st century, various types of painting have been preserved and are developing: Gzhel, Khokhloma, Boretskaya, Gorodets, Mezen, Onega, Permogorskaya, Pizhma, Polkhovsko-Paydanskaya, Puchzhskaya, Rakulskaya. Consider the features of these original styles.
The emergence of Khokhloma
The ability to paint a tree in gold color without the use of gold, in fact, was transferred to Khokhloma masters from schismatic icon painters, who discovered this know-how back in the 12th century in the secret wilderness of the forests of the Volga region. By the way, they wereare familiar with the crafts that provide painting: turning and the art of ancient ornamentation. Perhaps they were also familiar with the ancient types of painting, A large trading village of the Nizhny Novgorod region of the Volga region - Khokhloma - like a magnet, attracted skilled craftsmen.
This, in modern terms, a regional fair for a group of villages along the banks of the Uzola River worked not only for the domestic market of Russia. We althy merchants bought large consignments of popular goods on it and took them for export. Thus, the Khokhloma market was "under the gun" of both domestic and foreign markets, which means that quality competition prevailed over price competition. A real incentive was created: the skill of a masterful person brought him tangible prosperity.
According to the research of specialists, in the period from the 12th to the 17th centuries, the Khokhloma style evolved, into which the ancient Nizhny Novgorod types of wood painting were integrated.
During the period from the 17th to the 18th century, the Khokhloma style basically took shape. In our time, its centers are:
- factory "Khokhloma artist", which employs craftsmen from the villages of the Koverninsky district (Semino, etc.). Their paintings are dominated by wildflowers and wild berries;
- association "Khokhloma painting", Semenov. The masters of unification traditionally develop the theme of fantastic flowers.
The monastic craftsmanship of the "thin brush" has found its application in the richest floral ornament. The quality of the products played a big role. The art of Khokhloma presupposed the observance by the masters of a certain technology. It is characteristic that it has not changed until our time. We list in order its stages:
- turning on a lathe a wooden blank of dishes (“linen”);
- priming blanks with a liquid solution of specially prepared clay ("shaft"). Nowadays, artificial primers are used for this purpose;
- tinning with tin or silver. Now aluminum is used for this;
- wood painting and oven drying;
- Varnishing and stoving.
Intensive heat treatment of products determined the color scheme preferred by ancient Russian painters: a combination of gold and red cinnabar with black. Those. the temperature of the Khokhloma ovens did not affect the brightness and contrast of such colors.
Khokhloma painting methods
Ancient types of painting on wood, integrating into Khokhloma, determined its two systems: "background" and "top" painting. The very name of the system contains a way of drawing the main silhouette outlines.
"Horse" system involves drawing a colored silhouette outline directly on a golden background. The background forms a golden "contour" directly from the background, by "sketching" the space surrounding the "golden curls" with black and red colors.
Each of the systems uses the same types of Khokhloma painting. There are only four of them: “curly”, “under the berry” (or “under the leaf”); "under the gingerbread"; "under the background".
"Kudrina" suggests a "herbal" pattern, painted with a very thin brush. It is somewhat reminiscent of a sedge, however, curled with intricate harmonious dynamic rings. According to experts, this is the most ancient ornament.
"Under the berry" - is drawn with a thicker brush. In addition to the “herbal base”, leaves and berries are already appearing here. The plant form is stylized and combined. On the same "stem" you can see both chamomile and strawberry leaves.
Painting "under the gingerbread" involves playing with a certain geometric shape (most often a rhombus). The figure is animated by "bushes" on the sides and illuminated by the sun in the middle.
With the “under the background” method, a vegetative contour is sequentially drawn, after which the remaining free background is painted over, and mostly black.
Thanks to the uniqueness of the brush of each master, Khokhloma is inimitable and unique. The types of painting that we have considered above alternate on it, delighting the eye with the harmony of golden, red and black colors.
Gzhel. Finding clay for porcelain
Gzhel as an art of artistic painting was born on the territory of the modern Ramensky district of the Moscow region. In the old days, these places were called the Gzhel volost, and the villages of Bokhteevo, Volodino, Gzhel, Kuzyaevo, Novokharitonovo, Turygino were spread over this area.
Until the 17th century, local peasants produced relatively primitive glazed dishes from clay. The situation changed due to the industrial development of local clays suitable for the production of porcelain. The starting point was the order of the kingAlexei Mikhailovich to discover "clays suitable" for the production of apothecary vessels - in 1663.
The experiment was a success, since 1710 the pharmacy order began to use local raw materials. Pharmacists praised the quality of clays, and the moment came when industrialists became interested in them. They were interested in raw materials suitable for the production of porcelain. By decree of the tsar in 1844, a commission was created, which included the owner of the porcelain factory in Moscow, Afanasy Grebenshchikov, and the engineer of the Porcelain Manufactory, Dmitry Ivanovich Vinogradov, who received a mining engineering education at the University of Marburg. Five years looking for the right clay. In 1849, after eight months of exploration, clays were obtained, from which first-class porcelain was produced. M. V. Lomonosov himself, a fellow student of Vinogradov, spoke highly of their quality.
Gzhel. Production development
Industrialist Grebenshchikov began to use the found raw materials at his Moscow plant. However, the smart people from the village of Gzhel and the surrounding villages, by the way, as we mentioned, who already had the skills of pottery, also realized the benefits of using higher quality clays.
Things went briskly, because excellent consultants lived in the villages - production workers from the factory of A. Grebenshchikov. In the period from 1750 to 1820, handicraftsmen produced majolica - oblong fermented jugs, plates, mugs, dishes. Ornamental painting was done with green, yellow, blue and eggplant paint on a white background. The image included a bird - in the center, and around it - trees, bushes, houses. (those.demonstrated primitive types of dish painting). Dishes were in demand. There was competition for quality. Former pottery factories were in the lead, producing semi-faience of high quality, identical to "foreign" dishes.
Skill has been honed over 80 years, and since 1820, almost all Gzhel craftsmen have been producing semi-faience. This is the heyday of Gzhel art. Products of masters can be seen in the Hermitage. This dish began to be considered the best and most elegant in Russia. Characteristic painted Gzhel teapots, bowls, plates filled the houses of merchants and the nobility, taverns. Improved types of painting. Gzhel is bought all over the country, from Arkhangelsk to Astrakhan, exported to Central Asia and the Middle East. About thirty factories produce products. Manufacturers are engaged in the production of Gzhel: Barmins, Guslins, Gusyatnikovs, Kiselevs, Terekhovs, Sazonovs.
Unfortunately, since 1860 Gzhel painting has declined. Folk creativity, born from the competition of hundreds of small producers and dozens of medium ones, is being supplanted by the pragmatism of large monopolies. Among the monopolists, M. S. Kuznetsov stood out, with his five factories and an annual output of 2.1 million rubles. The production capacity of all the rest was 14% of the Kuznetsovsky. As a matter of fact, the manufacturer Kuznetsov "crushed" creativity. The competition has gone, the motivation has gone down, the quality has gone down, the decline has set in.
How artists draw Gzhel
Gzhel is unique in that each master, using classical types of artistic painting for her, creates his own individu altechnique.
This is a subtle art. The principal role belongs to the experience of the master, which manifests itself in the way the brush moves. At the same time, on the snowy whiteness of porcelain, a harmonious color change from intense blue to blurry blue is obtained. All this is drawn with a single paint - cob alt. The pattern is superimposed on the surface "on the first try", quickly.
Why is artist skill important? Initially, the real colors of the pattern are not visible (a feature of cob alt). Everything depicted seems to be one-color, and only when the Gzhel is fired in a kiln, the pattern will fully appear.
What is the Gzhel composition? The central role in it is usually occupied by a decorated flower. To the sides of it are a harmoniously sinuous "herbal" plot, enriched with leaves and berries. It happens that animalistic plots or those related to everyday life (for example, at home) are woven into this drawing.
How does such a drawing practically turn out? Types of artistic painting for the “drawn from the first time” Gzhel are actually reduced to methods of applying a brushstroke. There are only four of them: a shaded brush stroke, painting with one brush, a calico pattern, as well as complementary images.
Shaded network smear is characterized by a wide color range due to the different intensity of cob alt overlay through a special turn of the brush by the artist.
Painting with one brush is characterized by the fact that each subsequent stroke differs in tone from the previous one. At the same time, the intensity of the strokes gradually decreases, they “brighten”.
The calico pattern is the thinnest. It is drawn with only one end of the brush.
The types of painting used by Gzhel are not characteristic of photographic replication of natural motifs, but are rethought and presented in an unexpected configuration. The reimagined blue leaves, petals of blue tulips, asters, carnations, roses depicted by the artist follow the contours of birds or animals. Sometimes they outline stylized household items or objects (for example, peasant huts).
Additional images of the "grass" type - tendrils, spirals, hatching elements, various strokes, geometric fragments - complete the image, create the necessary accents.
The emergence of the Polkhov-Maidan painting
Russian folk painting is diverse. Its types in all their diversity, perhaps, can be described in a specialized monograph, but not in an article. Therefore, our task is more modest. We have already named the most "promoted" types of painting: Khokhloma and Gzhel. However, there are others, they are all original and there are quite a lot of them. Let's name some: Boretskaya, Gorodets, Mezenskaya, Onega, Permogorskaya, Pizhemskaya, Polkhovo-Maidanskaya, Puchuzhskaya, Rakulskaya, etc. Not being able to tell in detail about all of them in this article, we will present a description of the only one of them - the Polkhov-Maidan.
This painting originated at the beginning of the 20th century in the Voznesensky district of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Here, in the villages of Polkhovsky Maidan and in the village of Voznesenskoye, at the end of the 18th century, there was a turning business of the monks of the Sarov Monastery. Turning craft learned andpeasants, becoming skilled craftsmen in the manufacture of wooden utensils. Craftsmen also made, as they said, "tadarushki", i.e. items for fun: whistles, mushrooms, nesting dolls, Easter eggs, children's toys.
The impetus for the creation of the painting was the purchase by the peasant Polin Pavel Nikitich of a device for vizhiganie, and since 1926, the awakened creativity of the peasants led them to painting products with oil paints, and since 1933 they were replaced by aniline paints.
After the work of the Polkhovtsy was adopted by the Zagortsy, Merinovtsy, Semenovtsy, new types of painting nesting dolls were created (we will touch on this topic later).
Technology of the Polkhov-Maidan style of painting
In the beginning, the surface of the wooden product was sanded and primed with starch paste. Then the contour of the drawing was applied with ink, after which the painting was made. For this, paints of four colors were used: red, yellow, green and blue. Then the "tip" was carried out, a characteristic artistic stage of the Polkhov-Maidan style, which consisted in tracing the outline of the drawing in black. We add that this type of painting involves such a technique as overlaying flowers.
This type of art also uses a special technique of contourless painting.
We mentioned this type of painting not by chance. He flourished in the USSR until the 90s inclusive. Five thousand people worked at the Voznesenskaya factory. Of these, 40% are painters, the rest are turners. The work was treated creatively, at the factorycreative laboratory. The products were exported to the USA and European countries. Today, the traditions laid down by the factory are being developed by entrepreneurs.
Her Majesty matryoshka
Russian painting has not always evolved in evolution. Her views sometimes arose unexpectedly - not from "the depths of centuries." They were generated by the insight of some one creative Russian master. This is what happened with the matryoshka. She is not a native Russian invention.
Matryoshka appeared in Russia in the 19th century in Sergiev Posad. In 1898, the wife of the artist Sergey Vasilyevich Malyutin brought from Japan a figurine of the old man Fukurumu, in which four more figurines were invested (by the way, according to Japanese legend, the first such figurine was made by a Russian monk). Sergei Vasilievich rethought "in Russian" her idea. A brilliant idea arose - to model a typical Russian family. The name Matryona was then popular in Russia. In addition, as Milyutin believed, it echoed the ancient Roman name of the mother of the family.
Sergey Vasilyevich made a drawing of a figurine with eight attachments. The woman was followed by her daughter with a black rooster, then her son, then again a girl, the eighth figure was a baby. Turner V. P. Zvezdochkin carved their shapes from wood. Sergey Vasilievich himself painted the figurine.
Production of nesting dolls. Types of painting
The worldwide popularity of the nesting doll, its recognition by the world dates back to 1900, when it "came out" - to the world exhibition in Paris.
Could folk art pass by nesting dolls? Already in 1899, the entire Sergiev Posad was producing new charming dolls: girlsand women, ruddy, in caftans and aprons or kerchiefs and sundresses, with baskets, pets, birds, flowers. The Zagorsk style (as you know, Sergiev Posad was renamed Zagorsk) was distinguished by its picturesqueness, attention to small details.
Since 1922, nesting dolls have also been produced in the village of Merinovo in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The local turner Mayorov A. F., having bought a Sergius matryoshka, carved “his own”. His daughter painted the figurines. The Merino people quickly mastered the manufacture of these complex figurines. The Merino matryoshka is emphatically bright, although with less detail than the Zagorsk one.
The third "matryoshka deposit" was the village of Polkhovsky Maidan, famous for both turners and painting. Polkhovskaya matryoshka has its own characteristic features:
- fleeting, small strokes written face;
- the place of the outlines of the scarf and the lines of the sundress (skirt), from the back to 2/3 the matryoshka is painted scarlet (red) or green. The color of the scarf contrasts with it. In the area of the forehead of the matryoshka, a wild grouse flower is drawn. The apron is marked - from the neck to the ground. The painting of the apron is grouped “along the oval”. In the middle is a branch with an open rose, leaves, berries. The composition is completed with daisies and forget-me-nots.
The most difficult to make is the nesting doll from Vyatka, which local craftsmen encrust with straw.
Russian art painting as a kind of arts and crafts is based on a deep folk tradition, on people's awareness of what a Motherland is, what a family is. It is associated with the agethe life of our ancestors, therefore, painted products carry a charge of warmth, humanity, and a creative attitude to life. They really decorate the life of a modern person, they replace "impersonality", they introduce elements of decorating the living space.
Artistic painting also brings some accents into our lives, reminding us of continuity, of the Motherland, of the universal human duty of every person - to make life around us more beautiful.
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