2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Even if you've never seen Indian films, the word "Bollywood" immediately conjures up images of gorgeous, vibrant and colorful films shot in exotic locations where everyone dances and sings expressively. But what is the history of the creation and development of Indian cinema? And how is this industry growing to become one of the most powerful and financially lucrative industries in the country?
Many experts disagree on the exact definition of the term Bollywood. But still there is a similarity in terms: "Bollywood" is a powerful film industry in Mumbai, where films are made primarily in Hindi, with amazing dance scenes with songs. It does not cover the entire Indian cinema, only 20% of the country's total film production. Bollywood is not one genre of film, it is an industry with many directions.
The history of Indian cinema dates back to the nineteenth century. In 1896, the first films were made by the Lumiere brothers and shown in Mumbai (Bombay).
It is important to note that when the Harishchandra Sakharam, known as"stationary photographer", ordered a camera from England, then shot the film "Fighters" in the hanging gardens of Mumbai. It was a simple recording of the duel, which was soon shown in 1899 and was considered the first "moving" motion picture in the Indian film industry.
Indian cinema: history of creation
The father of Indian cinema is considered to be Dadasahed Phalke, who released the world's first full-length feature film Raja Harischandra in 1913. This is the first Indian film shown in London in 1914. The silent picture was a resounding commercial success.
Dadasahed was not only a producer, but also a director, screenwriter, cameraman, editor and even a make-up artist. Between 1913 and 1918, he oversaw and directed the production of 23 films.
Initially, the development of Indian cinema was not as fast as in Hollywood. New film production companies began to emerge in the 1920s. Paintings based on mythological and historical facts with episodes from the Mahabharata and Ramayana began to dominate in the 20s. But Indian audiences cheered more for the militants.
The end of the "silent era"
The first Indian sound film, Alam Ara, was screened in Bombay in 1931. Hiroz Shah was the musical director on the set of this film, who managed to record the first song "De de Huda", performed by VM Khan. Indian cinema has entered a new era.
After that, several film companies began to seek to increase the production of Indian films. 328 paintings weretaken in 1931. This is three times more than in 1927 - 107 premieres. During this time, the number of cinema halls and auditoriums has also increased.
From 1930 to 1940, many prominent figures of Indian cinema appeared on the scene: Debaki Bose, Chetan Anand, Vasan, Nitin Bose and others.
It was not only Hindi films that were popular during this period. The regional film industry also had its own brand. The first Bengali feature film "Nal Damyanti" with Italian actors in the lead roles was seen by the audience in 1917. The painting was photographed by Jayotish Sarkaru.
In 1919, a silent South Indian feature film called "Kechaka Wadham" was screened.
In the picture "Kalia Mardan" the daughter of the famous Dadasahed Falke became the first child of the "star" who played the role of the child of Krishna in 1919.
The Bengali sound film Jamai Shashti was shown in 1931 (produced by Madan Theatres).
Besides Bengali and South Indian languages, regional films were also made in other languages: Oriya, Punjabi, Marathi, Assamese and others. Aetheja Raja was the first Marathi film made in 1932. This picture was also made in Hindi to attract more people to view.
The birth of a "new era"
India's film history barely developed during World War II. The birth of the modern Indian film industry began in 1947. This period is marked by significant and outstanding transformations inshooting films. Renowned cinematographers Satyat Rai and Bimal Roy made films that focused on the issues of survival and daily suffering of the lower class.
Historical and mythological subjects have faded into the background, and social films have come to dominate the industry. They were based on topics such as prostitution, polygamy and other illegal acts that were widespread in the country of India. The cinema displayed this and condemned such actions.
In the 1960s, directors Ritwik Chatak, Mrinal Sena and others focused on the real problems of the common man. Several well-known films have been made on these themes, which have made it possible to "carve out a special niche" in Indian cinema.
The mid-twentieth century is considered the "golden time" in the history of Indian cinema. It was at this time that the popularity of such actors began to grow: Guru Dutt, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Meena Kumari, Madhubala, Nargis, Nutan, Dev Anand, Waheeda Rehman and others.
Bollywood pioneered masala films
In the 1970s, masala cinema appeared in Bollywood. The audience was captivated and mesmerized by the aura of actors such as Rajesh Khanna, Darmendra, Sanjeev Kumar, Hema Malini. It is believed that the famous and successful director Manmohan Desai was the founder of the creation of masala films. He often stated that he really wants people to forget their suffering and go to a dream world where there is no poverty.
Sholay, a groundbreaking film directed by Ramesh Sippy, not only receivedinternational recognition, but also made Amitabh Bachchan a "superstar".
Several female directors (Meera Nair, Aparna Sena) showed their talents in the 1980s. How can you forget about the extraordinary and impeccable filmmaker Rekha who directed the amazing film Umrao Yaan in 1981?
In the 1990s, such actors became popular: Shah Rukh Khan, Salman Khan, Madhuri Dixit, Ameera Khan, Chawla, Chiranjeevi and others. These professionals were looking for new ways to further develop Indian cinema. History will not forget 2008, which was a significant year for Bollywood - Rahman won two Academy Awards for Best Original Score for Slumdog Millionaire.
Continuing our acquaintance with Indian cinema, it is worth noting that there are four main aspects that help to better represent the relationship "India - cinema": nationalism, censorship, music and genres. Let's take a closer look at these topics.
In the early days of the industry, many Bollywood greats made the choice to use Hindi as the main language in Indian films. Why is that? After all, hundreds of languages are spoken in India, and Hindi is not even the most common of them. It became "main" because Hindi is a trade dialect that was understood by most of the population.
Another feature of the united Indian nation in Bollywood films is the eclecticism of the music. From the very beginning, the melodies created for films have included styles from different regions of the country.
The third feature is the "world" of Indian films, in which Muslims can marry Hindus or Christians, and people from different social classes achieve great success in life. It is important to say that many founders of Indian films believed that the indigenous Indian film industry was the key to the country's future freedom from the British.
When the cinema of India was still under British rule, it was impossible to tell about the inclusion of certain themes in films. But after the country gained independence from Great Britain, censorship began to play a decisive role in the style of films.
Depicting sex was strictly forbidden, as well as any blatant physical contact (even kissing). So the character's "body language" completely replaced those things, which became the norm. Only a slight touch of the shoulders between the two romantic characters and keeping the faces close to each other without touching is allowed. The dialogue also reflects compensation for the missing sexuality. Viewers just need to get used to understanding them.
The history of Indian cinema (interesting facts about it below) shows that censorship has also influenced the creation of several genres unique to Bollywood. For many years, when there was a war between India and Pakistan, it was forbidden to mention it in films. Enemies could not be called by their proper names.
The government of the country had a huge influence on the film industry: it believed thatthat the public should only be shown what will influence its political and social outlook. In addition, laws were even passed that stated that only classical music from North India should be used to portray the character of characters in films.
Hostility between the government and the film industry continued until 1998, before the adoption of a decree on the independent development of the industry.
Music is what many viewers call the defining characteristic of Bollywood films. And it certainly is! Music directors (as film composers are called in India) don't really think of the need for songs in films as a statement of principle, they see them as a simple and undeniable rule.
Music is as much a part of films as costumes. It is important to note that the creators of compositions do not seek to popularize their creations. They are aimed at developing an artistic representation of the plot in the audience.
The main truth: actors in films do not sing, and the same performers can voice the singing of several characters at once. However, in India it is considered a double pleasure to watch the best actor and listen to your favorite singer.
The most difficult thing for filmmakers was to film the musical scenes. Each director tried to screen the songs from the film in different ways. It has become so popular that even today 80% of all Indian films are made on the basis of "play and play music".
Interesting facts from the history of Indian cinema
The film industry in India isunique industry. Therefore, there are some aspects that are incomprehensible to us. Consider them:
1. Premier Schedule. Many popular films are shown according to certain criteria. For example, big blockbusters are “released” only during the big holiday in honor of the end of Ramadan, and during the cricket season, cinema halls seem to “die out.”
2. "It all comes down to family." Cinematography of India in the entire history of its existence has achieved the main goal - to put the family in the first place in the fate of every person. The film industry of the West cannot boast of this.
3. Indian Oscar. Bollywood has its own version of the award - this is Filmfar Awards, which has nothing to do with the tastes of the audience. More importantly, the award for "Best Game" is presented at the ceremony.
4. "Parallel Cinema". Many fans of Indian films do not even suspect that in India they shoot not only films with songs and dances. Some filmmakers, known as "parallel directors", are involved in making "serious movies". For example, in 1998 the film "Dil Se" was released, where the main character talks about the difficult political situation in the world.
The cinema of India (photos with the best scenes are presented above) has become an integral part in our daily life, whether it is a regional cinema or a Bollywood movie. It plays an important role in our society. Although "entertainment" is the buzzword of Indian cinema, the story has a beneficial effect on the mind and mind of the audience.
In Indian films historyprogressed from camera improvements to editing techniques. Technological advances have expanded the creativity of filmmakers. However, progress could not surpass the cultural values of India. And it's great!
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