2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
The formation of connected human speech has been going on for many millennia. At later stages, a written form of speech developed. In the modern language, there are three main types of texts: narration, description, reasoning. Texts differ in their functionality, carry different meanings, and have a certain structure.
Types of texts, their use
Any text is spoken or written for some purpose. This largely depends on its content. There is a certain set of tools for speech design, their use depends on the type of text.
Narrative, description, reasoning - texts that are most often used in oral and written speech.
This type of text is created to indicate that an item belongs to a particular group. For this, as a rule, its characteristic features, functionality, scope are described.
Togive an idea about the subject, in one of the parts of the text its general description is necessarily given. Most often this is done at the beginning or end. A full description of the subject is impossible without detail. The most important features are described in detail, taking into account the meaning that needs to be conveyed through the text. To the description, one can easily put the questions "what?", "what?". This type of text is easy to illustrate. In this case, one picture is enough, which will show both the general features of an object or phenomenon, and all its important details. The action takes place in a specific place at a specific time period. Of the expressive means of the language, the method of comparison, opposition, analogies is used. Simple and complex sentences are constructions included in the description text.
Narrative. Purposes of writing text
The purpose of this text is to describe the event, which shows the relationship of individual facts. The reader should be able to understand the progression of one or more related stories.
For the most complete understanding of the purpose for which a text of this type is created, it will be useful to consider a chain of related words: narrative - story - news. From this it becomes clear that to narrate is to narrate.
Characteristic features of the text
If the reader, after reading the content of the text, can answer some questions for himself: "what happened", "what happened from the very beginning", "what happenedstory", "what was the climactic moment in the development of events". This indicates that he is dealing with such a type of speech as narration.
Here, verbs play a huge role, which can be included in declarative, interrogative, exclamatory sentences. Story-narrative emphasizes the change of events and their logical sequence. Chronology can be traced in texts of this type. Simple and complex sentences form the basis of texts of this type.
As an example, you can take the text from the collection of exercises designed to work with children of primary school age. The story is called "By the Sea".
"There was a strong storm at night. The wind blew fiercely. The whole house shuddered from the storm. The sea waves howled menacingly. By morning, the storm gradually subsided. Natasha and Seryozha went for a walk to the sea. The girl picked up a small helpless crustacean from the sand. At night, the waves "They threw him on the seashore. The crustacean weakly moved its paws. Natasha threw the poor fellow into the water. He tumbled in the green water and quickly swam away. A fish swam on his side in a coastal puddle. The boy caught it and quickly released it into the sea. Then Seryozha found two helpless snails. They were almost dry and also needed help. On this day, Serezha and Natasha saved many marine inhabitants."
Russian folk tales can also serve as an example of narrative texts. In their structure, the plot, plot development, climax anddecoupling of action. Narrative is found in fiction and non-fiction, as well as in all genres of conversational style.
Definition of types of speech. How to work
After the children have read the narrative text, an example of which is given above, they can be asked to determine its theme and main idea. Having collectively discussed the proposed task, it is appropriate to answer the question "what did Seryozha and Natasha do?" Students list all the actions committed by the characters in the story. It will be useful to evaluate the actions of the characters. In addition, you need to ask the children to talk about the events that preceded the actions of the characters. The opening is very important in a narrative text.
One of the techniques that helps to determine whether a text belongs to one or another type of speech is word drawing. To do this, you need to ask the children to determine how many frames of the filmstrip they can make in order to convey the content of the text. Schoolchildren discover that one frame cannot convey the entire sequence of events; a series of pictures is needed. After such work, children easily determine that the given story is a narrative. Children can compose an example of this type of text on their own. At the same time, at a certain stage of training, they can indicate all its essential features.
This type of speech is intended not only to indicate the signs of the subject, but also to explore them. In addition, you need to prove and justify the existence of relationships, which is not required by the narrative at all.
An example of a reasoning text will necessarily contain a thought intended for proof, as well as conclusions, explanations, reasoning, thanks to which the assumption will be proven.
Logic is very important in the text, so you should clearly build the line of reasoning. Everything that does not relate to the proof of the thesis is excluded from the article. The construction most often uses simple common sentences and complex adverbial clauses, goals, causes, effects.
From the questions to the reasoning text, the most suitable are such as "why?", "why?", "why?"
Watching speech patterns
The general education program in the Russian language should give schoolchildren knowledge of what a text is, its type. Narratives, reasoning, descriptions are given as examples. But the main thing that children need to be taught is the ability to prove that a text belongs to one type or another and independently compose them on a topic set by the teacher.
To master these skills, students must:
- distinguish text from a set of sentences;
- know the structure of the text, its main parts;
- be able to put one of the questions to the content of the work, by which it is easy to determine its belonging to the type of speech;
- be able to assess a life situation in which a certain type of speech should be used.
When working on text, it is easy to see that there is such a phenomenon as a combination of its various types in onework. Fragments are included in the presentation not in isolation from each other, but in close connection. Therefore, it is very important not only to learn to distinguish types of speech, but also to skillfully connect them with each other.
An elementary school graduate, provided that the work on the development of speech was carried out systematically, easily determines the type of text: narrative, description, reasoning. Work on the ability to compose and combine them with each other continues at subsequent levels of training.
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