Accessions - what is it and how is it used in music?

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Accessions - what is it and how is it used in music?
Accessions - what is it and how is it used in music?

Video: Accessions - what is it and how is it used in music?

Video: Accessions - what is it and how is it used in music?
Video: How do Pokémon sound attacks work? 2023, October

White keys with names can easily be called by any average person, but where did the "intermediate" ones come from? To do this, there are accidental signs in music. With their help, there are much more sound options, the number of notes on which you can build a composition increases.

accidentals in music
accidentals in music

Notes and keys

If you look at the piano keyboard, you will notice that it is divided into equal sectors - octaves. Each of them has 12 sounds. Only 7 are known: do, re, mi, fa, s alt, la, si. These are the so-called basic sounds, lying exactly on the white keys - it's hard to make a mistake.

The keys are arranged in such a way as to make writing and playing music as easy as possible. They give systematization, they sound about the same, only at different heights. Only major and minor can be easily distinguished - they sound "fun" and "sad" respectively.

There are 2 keys on the main sounds:

  • C major;
  • A minor.

This means that when playing and composing in these keys there will be noblack keys are used - they are not in the scale. They are considered parallel, since they have the same set of sounds with different characters and tonics.

Half tone

The “distance” between all the main notes is exactly one tone, except for mi-fa and si-do, where the interval is only half a tone. This is how the fret structure is formed:

  • major (moving from to): two tones, semitone, three tones, semitone;
  • minor (moving from A): one tone, semitone, two tones, semitone, two tones.

Any other key will sound the same, but the basic sounds are not enough for this. For this, there are black keys that help build a scale from any tonic. They divide the octave into semitones where required (except for the two already available), while maintaining the ratio of sounds. These additional notes do not have names, they are determined by the rise or fall of one of the main notes. It remains to mark it somehow.

The role of accidentals in music

Just to get the halftones necessary for the fret, accidental signs were created. There are 5 of them in musical notation:

  • flat - half tone down;
  • bekar - cancel all sharps and flats;
  • sharp - half step up;
  • double sharp - increase by a whole tone;
  • double flat - lowering one tone.
accidentals notes
accidentals notes

Any sign can be attributed to the main note by putting it on the stave in front of it at the same level (on the line, under the line, above the line). The compound name of the sound is made up of the main designationnote + the name of the sign in front of it. For example, raised by half a tone to - to sharp, lowered by half a tone to mi - mi flat, etc.

One time is enough

Accessions in keys establish the system, as already mentioned. To make it convenient, they came up with the idea of putting icons at the key - at the beginning of the line. This means that the mark placed on the stave applies to every note on that line. It can remain unchanged throughout the composition if there is no change in key or the inclusion of additional characters. They act in all octaves and voices (if the work is orchestral) the same way, until the first modifications are made.

The number of characters at the key depends on the tonality, which can have any name and be based on any sound. The simplest C major and the teeming E-flat major still have the same order of tones and semitones.

Staging rules

The recording and arrangement of accidentals in notes is subject to strict rules:

  • either sharps or flats are used in the same key, the presence of opposite characters in the key is unacceptable;
  • are always placed to the right of the key;
  • sharp order - fa, do, sol, re, la, mi, si;
  • flat - si, mi, la, re, sol, do, fa.

Deepening into musical theory, the sequence of keys moves in a circle of fourths and fifths. For sharps - up a fifth, starting from C major, that is, each new one appears on the fifth step relative to the previous one. For flats - the same, only in quarts(fourth stage). This is clearly shown as a circle.

accidentals in keys
accidentals in keys

The main thing is to remember that the complexity of the work does not depend on accidentals. These are just "icons" that you should remember and keep in mind as you parse the composition.

How did he get here?

It is common to see a sharp or flat in sheet music immediately before the sound, even when the key key is already set. Such "guests" are called random accidentals and are valid only until the end of the barline. Bekar in this case can cancel the key sign or, if it is not required before the end of the measure, set random.


For example, in the key of F minor 4 flats: si, mi, la, re. For the dynamism of the work, the composer can amend the basic scale by playing one of the sounds without lowering. To indicate this when writing, there will be a backer in front of a particular note. In no case is it sharp, since the rise by a semitone (the return of the note to its original form) is carried out just by canceling the flat. And it only works in one measure.

With a 12-sound system, the music is in any case more interesting than it would be with seven sounds. There is more variability, you can make corrections and more interesting moves in the melody. Actually, this is what accidentals are for.