2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:28
Art Deco - a trend of decorative and fine arts of the early 19th century. It first appeared in France in the 20s, after which it gained popularity in the 30s and 40s all over the world. Basically, the direction was manifested in fashion, painting, and art deco was often found in architecture. This style is distinguished by eclecticism, which is a specific fusion of neoclassicism and modernism. Futurism, Cubism and Constructivism made a big impact on Art Deco in architecture.
Features of Art Deco style in architecture stood out brightly against the background of a smooth and viscous Art Nouveau. There was no trace of the previously fashionable softness of lines and shapes: now clear and pronounced contours and figures were considered stylish. Art Deco hallmarks are:
- strict regularity;
- expressed geometry;
- ethnic and geometric patterns;
- lack of bright colors;
- using halftones;
- bright ornaments;
- luxury, chic design;
- dearhigh-quality materials (for example, aluminum, ivory, precious woods, crocodile skin, silver, etc.).
In America, as well as in France, the Netherlands and some other European countries, Art Deco evolved over time and acquired some features of functionalism.
A feature of the history of the art deco style is that this direction arose, as it were, "in one day". The new term was born at the international art exhibition, which was held in 1925 in Paris. The event featured French luxury goods, demonstrating that France was still recognized as the center of fine taste and high style after the recent World War I.
At the same time, the direction itself existed even before the exhibition: the first signs of the emerging style became noticeable back in the 1920s in European art. Art Deco reached America only in 1928. In the 1930s in the United States, it took shape as a separate Americanized trend. The so-called Streamline Moderne became a real hallmark of this decade: art and furniture in a similar style could be seen in almost every home.
Art Deco was associated with style and luxury: it was believed that this chic was a reaction to the long and difficult years of restrictions and asceticism during the First World War. However, soon after a sharp rise, the new decorative trend quietly disappeared, dissolving into history: very soon they began to consider it too flashy, fakeluxurious. With the onset of World War II and the hardships it brought with it, Stiet finally disappeared.
An interesting fact is that in colonial countries such as India, for example, Art Deco was popular until the 1960s. By the 80s, interest in this style woke up again, which was associated with the development of graphic design. Thus, despite the fact that this direction, in fact, did not last long, it left behind a huge legacy, the echoes of which are sometimes still heard in various spheres of life and art.
Although the art deco style of architecture officially appeared in 1925, it became especially popular by the end of the 1960s. The masters of this art form did not constitute a single community. Rather, the movement was considered eclectic, influenced by various sources that found their way into the new style:
- The early "Viennese Secession" brought functional industrial design.
- Primitive ethnic art of Egypt, Indians of Central America and peoples of Africa.
- Archaic period of ancient Greek art.
- "Russian Seasons" by Sergei Diaghilev - sketches of costumes and scenery.
- The work of Leon Bakst.
- Futurism and Cubism with their crystalline, faceted forms.
- Neoclassicism of Boulet and Karl Schinkel.
- Plant and animal motifs, such as the sun;
- Athletic figures of female athletes, which became especiallymany in that century, sharp flapper haircuts (the fashion of the time);
- Technological advances: skyscrapers, radio, etc.
Art Deco in architecture has become a separate genre, despite the fact that it combines the features of many different directions. Although the period of its existence was short, many examples of this style still delight art historians and ordinary viewers.
Art Deco style in architecture and interiors is distinguished by its special quality and high cost. The masters of that century turned to new, bright and reliable materials, and they used them in various fields of art: from arts and crafts to architecture. Enamel and glass, aluminum, stainless steel, crocodile, shark, zebra skin were actively used. Wood inlay was especially popular.
Sharp, well-defined lines, zigzag and stepped shapes were widely used, which went against the soft, blurry outlines inherent in the Art Nouveau style. Chevron rhythm elements and piano keys were often used.
Some of these patterns have become ubiquitous, for example, an ornament resembling piano keys: it appeared both on ladies' shoes and on radiators. The Art Deco style not only decorated residential buildings, but also public places such as cinemas and even ocean liners.
In a modern interior, Art Deco is distinguished by the richness of Oriental, Indian and Egyptian culture ornaments combined with design ideasmodern professionals. The basis of color solutions are contrasts, in particular, black and white patterns.
However, Paris remained the center and cradle of Art Deco. Products in this fashionable style were especially popular and in demand here.
Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann, the most famous furniture designer of that era, became one of the brightest representatives in the direction of Art Deco. It is also called the last classic Parisian "cabinet maker".
Great contribution to the development of Art Deco style in architecture was made by Jean-Jacques Rato, as well as the French company Süe et Mare, thanks to their products. Glasses by Maurice Marino and Rene Lalique, wrought metal works by Edgar Brandt, screens by Eileen Gray, enamels by Jean Dunant, watches and jewelry by the great Cartier company are no less famous.
Art Deco sculpture
Although Art Deco was often found in furniture, interior and exterior decoration of the house, this style also influenced the field of sculpture. Items made of ivory and bronze have become a kind of symbol in this art. The sculptors of that time were inspired by the ancient craftsmanship of the East and Egypt, as well as the latest technological advances. So, the French masters were able to develop a new unique style, which managed to raise the status from small plastic to the level of high art.
Among the classic representatives of the creators of Art Deco sculpture Paul Philippe, Claire Jean Robert Colin, Otto Poertzel, Bruno Zach,Ferdinand Preiss, J. Lorenzl, and Dmitry Chiparus.
This stylistic direction developed in parallel with Art Deco, but had its own differences. In streamline modern, which has become widespread in the United States, there is a special influence of industrial scale production and aerodynamic technologies. In the works of this series, there were silhouettes of aircraft and revolver bullets.
The popularity and development of this style was influenced by the appearance of the Chrysler car, which was distinguished by streamlined smooth shapes. This model was so highly acclaimed that soon similar outlines were used not only for cars, but also for buildings, furniture and even sharpeners and refrigerators.
Art Deco in the USSR
The art deco style in architecture had a lot of influence on the appearance of Soviet cities: along with neoclassicism and postconstructivism, the style of this trend became one of the brightest sources of Stalinist architecture. This influence is especially noticeable on the example of some stations of the Moscow metro: Aeroport, Zamoskvoretskaya and Sokolnicheskaya lines. It is interesting that a lot of typical series of the USSR were copied from famous American projects in the Art Deco style.
Art Deco is also often found in the architecture of Moscow and other cities. Among the most typical examples, a hundred-apartment house built in Novosibirsk by A. D. Kryachkov and V. S. Maslennikov will be singled out.
Although the attitude towards this style in society has always been controversial, it cannot be denied that art-deco is a full-fledged architectural style. Its popularity has grown so much that it has been used in the design of literally everything from car design to kitchenware. This direction has had a great influence on architecture, sculpture, interior design, fashion, graphics, industrial design and even cinema.
Art Deco approved the natural reaction of society in relation to aesthetic views of the world. Squeezed between the two world wars, this style took off high, but did not disappear without a trace: it still has admirers and admirers, and it is unlikely that they will ever disappear.
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