2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Computer art is a modern form of creative activity, where traditional forms and drawing techniques (oil, watercolor and acrylic paints, ink) are transformed into a digital form. This is done using a computer, a hardware interface (a graphic tablet with a stylus or a modern tablet) and software (Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, SketchBook or the free Gimp). The result of the work is an original work of art in digital bitmap format. In what industries has computer art gained a strong foothold? What will happen to the traditional painting technique?
Computer art is a kind of creativity. It refers to a form of graphic art or digital images created using computer technology. Giventhe concept also includes traditional disciplines where computers are used. It covers computer painting or kinetic art (sculptures) as well as equivalent forms of applied art (computer-aided design, architecture). In any case, this modern art form is computer-generated postmodernism. This form of expression of the idea is very far from the rock paintings of the Stone Age.
History of Appearance
The history and features of computer art appeared thanks to technical revolutions and the development of science.
Artists first started experimenting using computers in the 1950s. The first exhibition of computer art "Computer Pictures" was held at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York. Another large-scale exhibition - Cybernetic Serendipity - was held in London in 1969 at the Institute of Contemporary Art.
At this stage, most of the artwork called digital or cybernetic was graphic and emphasized geometric shapes in various random combinations. They won't catch the attention of the modern generation now, but they were definitely considered revolutionary at the time.
The history of computer art since the 1970s with the advent of the light pen is developing in a different direction. The stylus was a digital pen that allowed the user to move and place objects on the computer monitor, allowing for a greater degree of flexibility. Today they are often used in tandem with digital personalorganizers.
Famous artists David Hockney (b. 1937) and Richard Hamilton (1922-2011) experimented with this technology. In 1992, Hamilton used the Quantel Paintbox system to manipulate his 1956 collage.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the features of computer art could be studied in interactive environments, where the viewer and the artist were on the border between the real and virtual worlds. The artists focused on creating images using computer software tools. Founded in 1982, Adobe has released the easy-to-use Adobe Illustrator software for artists.
This is still one of the main programs used by computer artists. The digital processing of photographs with programs such as Photoshop has created a new generation of interesting contemporary artists such as Andreas Gursky (b. 1955) and Jeff Wall (b. 1946).
Developments in hardware have also had an impact on the industry. Many 21st century artists use Apple products. Particularly popular is iPad and touch screen technology, which makes computer images more accessible than ever before.
The Role of the Internet
The Internet has become the medium by which computer artists publish their work. Artists can submit their artwork to online galleries or self-publish on a personal blog or website. The World Wide Web has also createdinteractive features that are used by some artists to create virtual experiences.
For example, Indian artist Shilpa Gupta (b.1976) invited visitors to London's Tate Modern. People at the computer were able to access a temporary website, select a religion, and receive a virtual blessing (Blessed Bandwidth, 2003).
There are many differences between computer art and traditional visual arts (painting, graphics and sculpture). Digital art can be easily produced and presented to people who can distribute it, that is, copy and multiply it. It is extremely popular with pop and poster artists.
Traditional art takes longer, as a result each piece is unique. Today, traditional art can easily be digitized. For computer illustrations, the question remains whether the soul of the artist is lost in digital art. Can computer art really express an artist's inner emotions? Conservatives are on the side of the classical image and answer these questions in the negative.
Contemporary artists disagree, insisting that computer art is a highly skilled profession that can take years to master. They argue that the form, values and rules of art, such as shading, composition and others, are inherent in digital art, not only traditional. For this reason, does it matterDoes the artist hold a computer mouse or paint brush in their hand? No doubt the discussion will continue.
It is clear that computer graphics as an art has touched the life of every person. Today it is impossible to buy anything, be it food, a book or a gift, without being confronted with digitally processed images. Pictures are printed on the packaging, book cover and glossy brochure. Among other things, digital art is playing a central role in the film, animation and gaming industries.
Various types of avant-garde art appeared in the 20th century, including animation (W alt Disney), collage (Brac), junk art (Duchamp), assembly (Jean Dubuffet), conceptualism (Edward Kienholtz, Yves Klein), installation (Joseph Beuys), performance (Allan Kaprow) and video art (Andy Warhol, Peter Campus, Bill Viola). Digital graphics are revolutionary because as artificial intelligence grows, it tends to achieve complete artistic independence. Modern types of computer art are diverse. Let's list them and outline the key features.
Computer graphics as an art form is the most lucrative area of the digital industry. The creation of computer images is based on specialized software. Images can range from simple (such as a company logo) to complex animation and realistic film with special effects. They have revolutionized the computer game, film and animation industries. Pixar Animation Studios,as the best computer animation studio, awarded.
Digital Installation Art
Computer technology in art is needed to create large-scale public art projects. This is a projection of images of objects (the facade of a building, a wall in a room) generated by a computer. Typically, a "work of art" is movable (meaning it can be transferred to any surface) and scalable, object-oriented.
Generative art means that the artwork was created by a random automated method, that is, a computer program using a mathematical algorithm. Here, a work of art is created with a certain degree of autonomy, that is, with limited influence from the artist.
The author sets the basic rules in the form of formulas and then starts a random process. The computer creates paintings and drawings that can be printed on paper or canvas. Now generative art is developing under the influence of artificial intelligence and robotic algorithms.
Digital illustration uses computer software such as Adobe Illustrator to create works of art similar to traditional fine art. Most often, computer illustrations are created from scratch, but photographic elements can be included in such works. Digital illustration is popular in the fashion industry withdesigners creating their layouts.
Digital painting programs are equipped with a palette of colors and are designed to accurately reproduce the stroke and technique of real tools: brushes, pastels, pencils, charcoal, pen. The artist uses techniques to create a digital painting directly on the computer.
Most bending programs for computer graphics, they allow the user to create new brushes, combine techniques.
Correction of the picture is done by changing the angle of the pen on the tablet or pressure on a certain area of the picture.
Computer graphics becomes an art when a digital artist masters specific techniques in his environment, otherwise the knowledge is the same as that of a conventional artist (perspective, composition, play with color and light).
The use of digital tools and aids to create art has become commonplace. With digital art, the computer becomes the main conductor of creative power. Now let's give vivid examples of computer art:
1. Scott Snibbe, Falling Girl
The immersive interactive narrative installation "Falling Girl" allows the viewer to become an active part of the story that follows the unnaturally slow descent of a young girl from the top of a skyscraper to the ground. The falling girl reacts to people and events from every window she passes through on her way down. The message of thisThe work of art is communicated in an interactive way, emphasizing the brevity of our lives and the unimportance of many things.
2. Gilles Tran, "The Wind Blows"
Modern French 3D artist Gilles Tran, known as Oyonale, has created a work called "The Wind Blows", in which gravity seems to play with the objects in the room. It seems that the whole scene is covered by a beautiful and at the same time dangerous moment - a breath of wind. The work was created on 3D rendering software such as POV-Ray, Cinema 4D, Poser and FinalRender. A hardworking programmer and designer has created his own surreal worlds. Its three-dimensional space attracts the viewer due to the realism of the image.
3. Pascal Dombis, "Irrational Geometry"
Pascal Dombis explores the complexities of visual paradoxes in his work. Algorithmic components are key to his art. Through complex repetition of simple processes, he creates complex geometric and typographic signs. The snippet is reminiscent of a glitch that people experience when running computer programs. The image evokes a feeling of awkwardness and imbalance. The viewer contemplates the paradox of mechanical control and the chaotic randomness that software failure causes.
4. POV-Ray, "Still Life"
How advanced is computer art after more than 50 years? A small program calledThe Persistence of Vision Raytracer, also known as POV-Ray, may provide the answer. This is tracing software, it generates images based on text description, creating visual works of art from millions and billions of complex mathematical calculations.
Everyone can learn how to use this program, it does not require any innate talents and skills in drawing or drawing. The end result speaks for itself. The incredible resemblance of the final picture to a photograph or real image will amaze anyone who looks at it. It remains one of the most used ray tracing platforms today because it is easy to use and provides a powerful resource for editing generated images.
Computer or digital art is developing at a rapid pace. At this stage, it is closely connected with the Internet, intelligent systems and robotization. Nobody knows what will happen next. But the fact that the worlds of traditional and digital art are drifting apart is certain.
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