Short biography of Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev. Interesting facts about the writer
Short biography of Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev. Interesting facts about the writer

Video: Short biography of Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev. Interesting facts about the writer

Video: Short biography of Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev. Interesting facts about the writer
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Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev, in his famous work "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow", for the first time in Russian literature, truthfully spoke about the inhuman attitude of the landlords towards their serfs, about the lack of rights of the people and the violence committed against them. The writer showed a picture of the rebellion of the serfs, driven to despair. He had to pay dearly for this - a harsh exile to Siberia … You can find out about all this and other facts from the biography of A. N. Radishchev in this publication.

Origin of Radishchev

alexander nikolaevich radishchev biography
alexander nikolaevich radishchev biography

Let's start by introducing our hero. Radishchev Alexander Nikolayevich is a well-known Russian writer, an adherent of "enlightenment philosophy". The biography of Radishchev begins on August 31, 1749 (according to the old style - August 20). It was then that Alexander Nikolaevich was born. Radishchev Afanasy Prokopevich, the grandfather of the future writer, wasone of the amusing Peter. He rose to the rank of brigadier. Afanasy Petrovich gave his son Nikolai a good upbringing. Nikolai Afanasyevich Radishchev was a Saratov landowner. And Fekla Stepanovna, Alexander's mother, was from the Argamakov family, an old noble family. Her eldest son was Alexander Radishchev. The biography and work of the great writer glorified this surname.

Training in Verny Ablyazov and Moscow

The father's estate was located in Upper Ablyazov. Alexander learned Russian reading and writing from the Ps alter and the Book of Hours. When he was 6 years old, a Frenchman was assigned to him, but the choice of teacher was unsuccessful. As they later learned, this Frenchman was a runaway soldier. The father decided to send his son to Moscow. Here he was entrusted to the care of a French tutor, who had previously been an adviser to the Rouen parliament, but he had to flee from the persecution of Louis XV.

Alexander in 1756 was sent to a noble gymnasium, located at Moscow University. She continued her education for six years. In September 1762, the coronation of Catherine II took place in Moscow. Many nobles were promoted to the ranks on this occasion. Radishchev's biography was marked by an important event for him on November 25: Alexander Nikolayevich was granted a page.

How Radishchev got abroad

He arrived in St. Petersburg in January 1764 and studied in the corps of pages until 1766. When Catherine decided to send 12 young noblemen to Leipzig for scientific studies, including 6 pages who distinguished themselves by success in teaching and behavior, one became one of the lucky onesRadishchev. When students were sent abroad, Catherine II personally wrote instructions on what they should do. Significant funds were assigned for their maintenance - at first 800 rubles, and from 1769 - a thousand a year for each.

Life in Leipzig

However, Major Bokum, assigned as an educator to the nobles, withheld significant amounts in his favor, so the students were in need. Radishchev, whose biography interests us, spoke about his stay abroad in "The Life of F. V. Ushakov". The occupations of young people in Leipzig were quite diverse. They studied philosophy, law, history. According to the instructions of Catherine II, students could also engage in "other sciences" if they wished. Radishchev chose chemistry and medicine. He became interested in them not just as an amateur, but very seriously. Alexander Nikolaevich even passed the exam for a doctor and subsequently successfully engaged in treatment. Chemistry was also one of his favorite things. Radishchev knew various languages well (Latin, French, German). Later, he also learned Italian and English. After spending 5 years in Leipzig, Radishchev, like his comrades, forgot the Russian language. Therefore, he began to study it upon his return to Russia under the guidance of secretary Ekaterina Khrapovitsky.

Return to St. Petersburg, service in the Senate

After graduation, Alexander Nikolayevich became a very educated person, which at that time was not much not only in our country, but also in the world. In 1771 Radishchev returned to Petersburg. He soon entered the service of a reporter inSenate. Alexander Nikolayevich did not serve long in the rank of titular adviser, because his poor knowledge of his native language interfered, and he was also burdened by the appeal of his superiors and the partnership of clerks.

Service at Bryusov's headquarters and in the Commerce College, marriage

Radishchev decided to join the headquarters of General-in-Chief Bryusov, who commanded in St. Petersburg. He became an auditor. Alexander Nikolayevich retired in 1775, rising to the rank of second major. Rubanovsky, one of his comrades in Leipzig, introduced Alexander Radishchev to the family of his older brother. Alexander Nikolaevich married Anna Vasilievna, the daughter of the latter.

In 1778, he again entered the service of the Camerz College as an assessor. In 1788, Radishchev was transferred to the St. Petersburg customs. He became assistant manager and later manager. Both in the customs office and in the Chambers College, Alexander Radishchev stood out for his devotion to duty, disinterestedness, and a serious attitude to his duties.

First literary works

Radishchev's biography
Radishchev's biography

Reading and learning Russian eventually led him to his own literary trials. In 1773, Radishchev published a translation of Mably's work, after which he began to compile the history of the Russian Senate, but destroyed what was written.

The book that brought fatal fame

Radishchev's biography continues with the death of his beloved wife. It happened in 1783. After that, Alexander Nikolayevich decided to immerse himself in literary work and find solace in it. He published in 1789 "The Life of Fyodor VasilyevichUshakov … ". Radishchev, taking advantage of the decree of the Empress on free printing houses, started his own at home and published his main work in 1790 called "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow".

Radishchev Alexander Nikolaevich short biography
Radishchev Alexander Nikolaevich short biography

Immediately this book began to quickly sell out. Bold reasoning of Alexander Nikolaevich about serfdom, as well as other phenomena of the state and public life of that time, drew the attention of Catherine II herself, to whom someone presented the "Journey …".

How the censors missed "Journey…"

Radishchev's biography is very curious. Interesting facts about him are numerous. They cannot fit into the format of one article. However, one of them must be mentioned. Radishchev's book was published with the permission of the deanery council, that is, the established censorship. However, the author was still prosecuted. How is this possible? The fact is that "Journey …" was censored simply because the censor thought it was a guidebook. Indeed, at first glance it may seem so - the chapters of the work are named after places and cities. The censor looked only at the contents and did not delve into the book.

Arrest and sentence

alexander radishchev short biography
alexander radishchev short biography

We did not immediately find out who the author of the essay was, since his name was not indicated in the book. However, after the arrest of the merchant Zotov, in whose store Radishchev's work was sold, they learned that it was Alexander Nikolaevich who wrote the ill-fated work andpublished it. Radishchev was arrested, and his case was "assigned" to Sheshkovsky. The empress forgot that Alexander Radishchev studied "natural law" both abroad and in the page corps, that she herself allowed to preach and personally preached the principles that were mentioned in the Journey. Catherine II reacted to the work of Alexander Nikolaevich with great personal irritation. The Empress personally drafted questions to Radishchev and directed the whole affair through Bezborodko.

Alexander Nikolaevich was put in a fortress, where Sheshkovsky interrogated him. Repeatedly declared repentance, refused the book written by him Radishchev. A short biography of him, however, should not miss the fact that in his testimony he often revealed the very views that were cited in his work. Our hero hoped by an expression of repentance to mitigate the punishment that threatened him. However, Radishchev could not hide his convictions.

A brief biography of his later years is quite natural. It is clear that the fate of Alexander Nikolaevich was decided in advance. He was found guilty already in the decree on trial. A brief investigation was carried out by the Criminal Chamber. Its content is indicated in a letter from Bezborodko to Count Bruce, the commander-in-chief in St. Petersburg. Radishchev was sentenced to death.

Mitigate fate

Transferred to the Senate, and then to the Council, the verdict was approved in these two instances, after which it was presented to the Empress. On September 4, 1790, a personal decree was issued, recognizing Alexander Nikolaevich guilty of a crimepositions of the subject and the oath by the publication of this book. The guilt of Alexander Radishchev, as it was said in it, is such that he deserves the death pen alty. However, out of mercy and in honor of the conclusion of a peace treaty with Sweden, such a severe punishment was replaced by exile in the Ilim prison, located in Siberia. He should have been there for 10 years. This decree was immediately enforced.

Hard years of exile

Radishchev's biography interesting facts
Radishchev's biography interesting facts

Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev survived a difficult time. His biography is marked by difficult trials immediately after the verdict. Arrested in the summer, the writer was taken away from the fortress without warm clothes. Apparently, Catherine II hoped that Radishchev, who was already hard pressed by his imprisonment, would die along the way. It is known that Count Vorontsov sent money to the governor of Tver so that Alexander Radishchev could buy everything he needed for the long journey.

Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev, whose biography continues in the Ilim prison, spent almost 5 years here. However, he did not lose heart. Radishchev treated local residents. Alexander Nikolaevich instilled smallpox in children, equipped a small oven at home, where he started firing dishes. And, of course, he continued his literary activities.

The sad fate of such a famous writer as Radishchev Alexander Nikolaevich attracted everyone's attention. A brief biography of him should not miss the fact that the sentence passed on him seemed incredible. Many times rumors arose in society that Alexander Nikolayevich was forgiven, that he would soonwill return from the link. However, they weren't justified.

Relationship with E. V. Rubanovskaya

E. V. came to Siberia to see him. Rubanovskaya, the sister of his late wife, brought her younger children with her (the older children stayed with their relatives for education). Radishchev in Ilimsk became close to this woman. However, they did not have the right to marry. This was equated with incest and was a violation of church rules. In exile, Elizaveta Vasilievna gave birth to three children to Radishchev. She died in 1797 from a cold in Tobolsk, while returning from exile. However, the feat of this woman, who anticipated the Decembrists, was not only not appreciated by contemporaries. Even after the death of Elizaveta Vasilievna, they and Alexander Nikolaevich continued to be condemned. When Radishchev returned home, Nikolai Afanasyevich, his blind father, refused to accept his grandchildren. He said that marrying a sister-in-law was unthinkable. If Radishchev chose a serf girl, he would accept her, but Elizaveta Vasilyevna cannot.

Return Home

Shortly after accession to the throne, Emperor Paul returned from Siberia such an important public figure as Radishchev Alexander Nikolayevich. A brief biography of his subsequent years, however, is marked by new difficulties. The pardon decree was drawn up on November 23, 1796. Alexander Nikolayevich was ordered to live in the village of Nemtsovo, Kaluga province, where his estate was located. The Governor was instructed to oversee the correspondence and behavior of Radishchev. Alexander Nikolaevich after the accession of Emperor Alexander I received complete freedom. He was called to Petersburg. Here becameAlexander Radishchev, a member of the commission for drafting various laws. His short biography ends quite unexpectedly. How did it happen? Now you will learn about how A. N. Radishchev. His biography ends in a very unusual way.

Death of Radishchev

Born and Ilyinsky, contemporaries of Alexander Nikolaevich, certify that the legend of his death is true. According to him, Radishchev filed a draft on legislative reforms. It again put forward the liberation of the peasants. Then Count Zavadovsky, the secretary of the commission, made Alexander Nikolaevich a stern reprimand for his thoughts, reminding him of his past hobbies. Zavadovsky even mentioned the Siberian exile. Radishchev, whose he alth was greatly upset and his nerves broken, was so shocked by the threats and reprimand of Zavadsky that he even decided to commit suicide.

a n radishchev short biography
a n radishchev short biography

Alexander Nikolaevich drank poison. He died in great pain. Radishchev died on the night of September 12, 1802. Alexander Nikolaevich was buried at the Volkovskoe cemetery.

Radishchev name ban and rehabilitation

For a long time there was a ban on the name of such a great writer as A. N. Radishchev. Today, many people are interested in his brief biography, but after his death, his name practically did not appear in print. Several articles about Alexander Nikolayevich were written shortly after his death, and then his name almost disappeared from the literature. It was very rarely mentioned. Only incomplete and fragmentary data were given about Radishchev. Batyushkov introduced Alexander Radishchev to the program of essays in literature,compiled by him. Only from the 2nd half of the 1850s was the ban on the name of Radishchev lifted. Since that time, many articles about him began to appear in the press.

radishchev short biography
radishchev short biography

To this day, researchers are attracted by the biography of Radishchev. The summary of his "Journey …" is known to many of our compatriots. All this speaks of his immortality as a writer.