2023 Author: Leah Sherlock | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 09:26
Perhaps many do not know what topiary art is, but they observe the results of such activities. Stunning green sculptures, created by human hands, attract attention with a variety of forms. It is amazing how shrubs and trees grow and develop not according to natural, but according to the laws dictated by man, which correspond to his ideas of beauty.
The figure cutting of trees and bushes was made in the times of Ancient Rome. The inhabitants decorated their gardens in this way, and the masters of artistic molding were highly valued. Later, topiary art was forgotten for a long time, and only during the Renaissance it was revived again. Living masterpieces made of boxwood bushes appeared in Italian villas, reminiscent of animals and birds. Fancy labyrinths of linden and arborvitae, neat borders, green rooms formed from yew walls, surprised and delighted the eye.
HoweverFrance is one of the trendsetters in landscape design, and its regular gardens are recognized as the greatest achievement in this field. After the 17th century, the art of creating this kind of parks spread throughout Europe. Unusual ideas for working with shrubs under Peter I were brought to Russia. And a few decades later, the "new topiary" appeared - a special technique in which a metal frame is used for cutting, but in this case there is a high risk of a tree growing into it.
There are special forms filled with sphagnum (moss) and peat, in which shrubs are planted, and they grow with a crown of unusual shapes.
Besides the green sculptures that adorn gardens and parks, the most common form of art for creating various shapes using pruning is hedges, which are compact. They vary in width and height, can be single or multi-row. They are planted in a checkerboard pattern, and the distance between the bushes depends on their size and can reach one meter. Sheared hedges make up ornate labyrinths that enclose the perimeter of the site, and evergreens like laurel or viburnum are used to create them.
Plants suitable for shearing
It must be said that few plants are suitable for curly haircuts. In the natural conditions of Russia, privet, spruce and yew are most often used, and for the winter such topiaries must be carefully covered. When a fast-growing living wall is needed, thenthe ideal material is western thuja, which is a very unpretentious plant.
Growing dwarf trees of the most bizarre forms is a separate species, and this art is called bonsai in Japan. Recently, oriental motifs are extremely popular in Europe. Trees trimmed in a special way give color to the parks and create comfort. In Russia, bonsai is an imitation of ancient Japanese art, since it is impossible to follow all the rules without a long study. Unfortunately, our compatriots are chasing external exotics and pass by dwarf trees growing in forests. But they can be transplanted to the site and get a ready-made bonsai.
Topiary magic at its peak
Topiary art, wonderful examples of which are the luxurious gardens of Peterhof and Versailles, is often subject to fashion trends, but green labyrinths with specially intricate passages never leave it. They appeared in the Renaissance and are still popular today.
Effective novelty in landscape art are plants formed in the form of a high arch. Live gazebos made of yew and hornbeam, and bosquets are always at the peak of fashion - closed land plots lined with cut shrubs in the form of a dense hedge around lawns.
A long and exciting process
The process of creating green sculptures (topiary or topiary) is very exciting, but long, taking about six to seven years, and before theyto do, you need to master the basics of topiary art. Living arrangements require a pruner, lopper, garden saw and trellis shears to care for.
First, a place is selected taking into account all the features of the landscape, then bushes, from which the original figures will be formed. Using a metal mesh, a template is created, and as the shoots grow, a haircut is carried out when the branches are cut at the same length with garden shears, and a flat surface is created (for example, hedges). The work is carried out during the growth of bush shoots.
And pruning with pruning shears is most often carried out in early March. In this case, the length of the branches is calculated depending on the imagination of the master. Cropping is done when creating complex shapes.
What to look out for?
Being the most interesting area of landscape architecture, topiary art requires not only patience, but also special knowledge. Below are some recommendations from experts in the field:
1. When creating living sculptures, plants under five years old are not used.
2. Different types of plants look best in hedges: unusual color effects will attract attention.
3. If you remove more than a third of the bush in one haircut, then it will start to hurt.
4. In the cold climate of Russia, hedges should not have vertical walls. Otherwise, the lower branches will not receive enough sunlight and will be bare.
The only topiary art park in Russia
There are several topiary parks in the world where you can find amazing works of landscape art. They exist in India, England, USA, Belgium, Ecuador. And in our country, this kind of park is located in Abakan. The Dream Gardens complex, created 10 years ago, is admired by all visitors. On a small area there are amazing masterpieces created by human hands from plant material. The topiary art park in Abakan is the main attraction of Khakassia. Landscape designer Antropov has patented his own technology, which creates unique figures.
The tall Eiffel Tower that looks like a real three-meter panda, a steppe eagle soaring up, a fluffy kitten made of barley, a cute hedgehog - what's there!
The most famous specialist in topiary art - V. Lyapchev
Besides Vasily Antropov, who presented the city of Bryansk with a three-meter figure of a wise owl and dreamed of creating a topiary park here, the name of Vladimir Lyapchev, who has been trimming trees since 2005, is known in Russia. A leading specialist in landscape architecture transforms old gardens beyond recognition, and in a few days an unremarkable corner acquires a unique look. Informative articles by the master of topiary art can be read in special magazines dedicated to home gardening. Lyapchev conducts seminars in our country and abroad, where he shares the intricacies of his work. Repeatedly hetook part in special projects at international festivals, for which he received prestigious awards.
Currently, topiary art is incredibly popular. Photos of unique masterpieces, the variety of which depends only on the imagination of a person, lead the viewer into a genuine delight. For the past ten years, not a single exhibition dedicated to landscape art has been complete without green compositions made from clipped plants.
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